How to Use the Cases
Some people may find it most convenient to use this book on their own. In this instance, it is important for the reader to resist the temptation to simply read the case and then turn the pages to see what is said in the Facilitators' Notes. First, the reader should review the Discussion Questions for the case, and then read the Case itself. The reader should then return to the questions and actively analyse the case by considering their own answers and making notes on the important points. Only after this has been done should the reader compare his/her views with the ideas given in the Facilitators' Notes. Even taking thirty minutes after reading the case to develop the outlines of an analysis will greatly increase the value of the material.
Self-Directed Group Study:
The cases included in this book are ideally suited for group discussion. A formal instructor is not needed, only a person to instigate the formation of the study group. If a group of individuals all analyse the case individually and then discuss their answers to the questions with each other, valuable new ideas and perspectives may be gained. Members of the group will each bring their own perspectives to bear on the case and each will see aspects that others have missed. Often all of these perspectives must be brought together to fully understand the issues and to identify the most appropriate and creative ideas and strategies.
This is particularly valuable when it involves a group of colleagues working in a situation in some way related to that of the case. The case can then help to develop insights into their own work and develop a sense of teamwork and joint problem-solving. NGOs could use the cases in this way to help their members and volunteers to consider some of the issues involved in working in the area of HIV/AIDS and to identify strategies that could be used within their own organisation. When used in this way, it would be preferable if the Facilitators' Notes are not read by the group members before their own analysis and group discussion have been completed.
Classroom Use. Cases have long been found to be a useful means of teaching management skills in the classroom. The most common approach is to first ensure that students read and analyse the case on their own and sufficient time should be allotted for this purpose (usually between one and two hours). Students need to be given copies of the Case, the Objectives and the Discussion Questions. Then students meet in small groups of between five to eight people to discuss their analyses. The most valuable learning often takes place in these sessions as each person has more opportunity to participate than is possible in a large group. Then, in plenary session, the facilitator may discuss the case again with the group, organising the students' ideas and ensuring that they are not overlooking important issues.
When used in this way, it would be preferable if the Facilitators' Notes are not read by the students before their own analysis and group discussion have been completed. This may be done by reproducing and distributing only those pages that relate to the Objectives, the Discussion Questions and the Case.
Although anyone is free to duplicate the materials in this book, UNDP requests that no changes in the cases are made. The cases represent real organisations and situations, so it is important that all the details are reported accurately. For this reason, and to maintain faith with the organisations and individuals who agreed to share information and whose cooperation made these cases possible, we ask that they not be revised or adapted in any way.
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