3.2 Current state of vaccine development
Dr J. Esparza, Chief of the GPA Vaccine Development unit, summarized developments in this field. The basic vaccine types (e.g. whole inactivated virus, live attenuated virus) were presented, as were problems in HIV vaccine development such as the lack of knowledge about immune correlates of vaccine protection and possible and observed virus variability. Dr Esparza also described the phases of vaccine development. He strongly emphasized that we can certainly not expect to see an HIV vaccine before the year 2000 (and this being a best-case scenario): the first efficacy trials will probably start in 1996-1997 and will last for two to three years; additional trials would be required; and licensing, manufacturing and distribution is often a lengthy process.
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