Change to Ukrainian interface versionChange to English interface versionChange to Russian interface versionHome pageClear last query resultsHelp page
Search for specific termsBrowse by subject categoryBrowse alphabetical list of titlesBrowse by organizationBrowse special topic issues

close this bookIndustrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU; 1994; 376 pages)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPart 1: General implications
close this folderPart 2: Case-studies
Open this folder and view contents6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980
close this folder7. Industrial metabolism at the regional level: The Rhine Basin
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGeographic features of the Rhine basin
View the documentMethodology
View the documentThe example of cadmium
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
Open this folder and view contents8. Industrial metabolism at the regional and local level: A case-study on a Swiss region
Open this folder and view contents9. A historical reconstruction of carbon monoxide and methane emissions in the United States, 1880-1980
Open this folder and view contents10. Sulphur and nitrogen emission trends for the United States: An application of the materials flow approach
Open this folder and view contents11. Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United States, 1880-1980
View the documentAppendix
Open this folder and view contentsPart 3: Further implications
View the documentBibliography
View the documentContributors
 

References

Alcamo, J., J. Bartnicki, K. Olendrzyuski, and J. Pacyna. 1992. "Computing Heavy Metals in Europe's Atmosphere: Part 1. Model Development and Testing." (Submitted to Atmospheric Environment.)

Ayres, R. U., L. W. Ayres, J. A. Tarr, and R. C. Widgery. 1988. "An Historical Reconstruction of Major Pollutant Levels in the Hudson-Raritan Basin: 18801980." NOAA Tech. Memo. NOS OMA 43. Rockville, Md.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce. 3 vols.

Ayres, R. U., and S. R. Rod. 1986. "Patterns and Pollution in the Hudson-Raritan Basin." Environment 28: 14-20, 39-43.

Balzer, D., and A. Rauhut. 1987. "Verbrauch und Verbleib van Cadmium und seiner Verbindungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1981-1983)." LGA-Rundschau 87-3, Nürnberg.

Behrendt, H. 1988. Changes in Nonpoint Nutrient Loading into European Freshwaters: Trends and Consequences since 1950 and Not-impossible Changes until 2080. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. (WP-88-026. )

- 1992. "Estimation of Point and Diffuse Loads of Pollutants Using the Dependencies of Load and Concentration on Discharge." (In preparation.)

Behrendt, H., and M. Boehme, 1992. Point and Diffuse Loads of Selected Pollutants in the River Rhine and Its Main Tributaries. Research report. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Boehm E., and K. Schaefers. 1990. "Massnahmen zur Minderung des Cadmiumeintrags in die Umwelt." Prepared by Fraunhofer-lnstitut fur Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung fur Bund/Länderausschuss Umweltchemikalien (BLAU). Karlsruhe.

Carter, V. E. 1977. Metallic Coatings for Corrosion Control. London: Butterworth, pp. 111112.

DeWaal Malefijt, A. J. W. 1982. "Cadmium, chroom, koper, lood, nikkel en zink in huishoudelijk afvalwater en in af te voeren neerslag." H2O 15: 355-361.

ECE (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, Switzerland). 1984. Air Pollution Studies 1. Air-borne Sulphur Pollution, Effects and Control. Report within framework of Convention on Long-range Transport of Air Pollution. New York: United Nations.

Elgersma, F., B. S. Anderberg, and W. M. Stigliani. 1991. Aqueous Emission Factors for the Industrial Discharge of Cadmium in the Rhine River Basin in the Period 1970-1990: An Inventory. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Fleming, G., ed. 1992. "Waste and Spoils: Examples of Chemical Time Bombs." Report of expert meeting of Land Disposal and Chemical Time Bombs, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 12-14 December 1991. (In preparation.)

Foerstner, U. 1991. "Long-term Changes of Acidity and Metal Chemistry in Landfills." Report submitted to expert meeting on Land Disposal and Chemical Time Bombs, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 12-14 December 1991.

Goumans, J. J. J., H. A. van der Sloot, and T. G. Aalbers, eds. 1991. Waste Materials in Construction. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hjelmar, O., E. Aagaard Hansen, and A. Rokkjaer. 1988. "Groundwater Contamination from an Incinerator Ash and Household Waste Co-disposal Site." Paper presented at UNESCO Workshop on Impact of Waste Disposal on Groundwater and Surface Water, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15-19 August 1988.

Hrehoruk, J., H. Modzelewski, and B. Frydzynska. 1992. Deposition of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead to the Rhine Basin due to Emissions from Local Sources and Corrosion Caused by SO2. Research report. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Hutton, M. 1982. Cadmium in the European Community: A Prospective Assessment of Sources, Human Exposure and Environmental Impact. MARC Report, no. 26. London: Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre, Chelsea College, University of London.

IIASA. 1992. "Report of the Expert Work Group on Emission Factors for Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc from Solid and Aqueous Wastes." Working paper. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. (In preparation. )

Jolankai, G., 1. Biro, and R. Ajkay. 1991. Computer Analysis of the Balance of Point and Diffuse Source Loading of lleavy Metals in the Rhine Basin. Phase 11 Interim Report. Budapest:VITUKI.

Kosson, D. S., H. van der Sloot, T. Holmes, and C. Wiles. 1991. "Leaching Properties of Untreated and Treated Residues Tested in the USEPA Program for Evaluation of Treatment and Utilization Technologies for Municipal Waste Combustor Residues." In: J. J. J. M. Goumans, H. A. van der Sloot, and T. G. Aabers, eds., Waste Materials in Construction. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 119-134.

MHPPE. 1988. Memorandum on the Prevention and Recycling of Waste. The Hague: Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment.

Novotny, V. 1988. "Diffuse (Nonpoint) Pollution - A Political, Institutional, and Fiscal Problem." Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 60: 1404-1413.

Odum, E. P. 1989. "Input Management of Production Systems." Science 243: 177182.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1991. OECD Environmental Data: Compendium 1991. Paris: OECD Publication Services.

Pacyna, J. M. 1988. Atmospheric Lead Emissions in Europe in 1982. Lillestrom: Norwegian Institute for Air Research. (Report no. NILU OR: 18/18.)

- 1991. Emission Factors of Atmospheric Cd, Pb, and Zn for Major Source Categories in Europe in 1950 through 1985. Lillestrom: Norwegian Institute for Air Research. (Report no. NILU OR: 30/91.)

Pacyna, J. M., and J. Munch. 1988. Atmospheric Emissions of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Zinc in Europe in 1982. Lillestrom: Norwegian Institute for Air Research. (Report no. NILU OR: 17/88.)

Raede, D., and A. Dornemann. 1981. "Migration Studies on Cadmium Pigments in Plastics." In: Cadmium 81: Edited Proceedings, Third International Cadmium Conference, Miami, USA, 3-5 February 1981. London/New York/New York: Cadmium Association/ Cadmium Council/lnternational Lead Zinc Research Organization, pp. 37-40.

Raubut, A. 1978a. "Verbrauch und Verbleib von Cadmium in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahr 1974 und 1975." Metall 32: 947-948.

- 1978b. "Industrial Emissions of Cadmium in the European Community: Sources, Levels and Control." European Community Study Contract, no. ENV/ 223/74E.
- 1981. "Cadmium-Bilanz 1976/77 und Cadmiumverbrauch bis 1979." Metall 35: 344347.
- 1983. "Cadmium-Bilanz 1978-1980." Metall 37: 271-275.
- 1990. "Cadmium-Bilanz 1984-1986." Unpublished manuscript. Nürnberg.

Rauhut, A., and D. Balzer. 1976. "Verbrauch und Verblieb von Cadmium in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahr 1973." Metall 30: 269-272.

Risse, F., J. Jacobs, W. vom Berg, and K.-H. Puch, 1991. "Nebenprodukte aus Kohlekraftwerken und Rückstände aus Müllverbrennungsanlagen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. " VGP Kraftwerktechnik 71: 504-508.

Schulte-Schrepping, K. H. 1981. "Emission of Cadmium from Refuse Incineration Plants." In: Cadmium 81: Edited Proceedings, Third International Cadmium Conference, Miami, USA, 3-5 February 1981. London/New York/New York: Cadmium Association/ Cadmium Council/International Lead Zinc Research Organization, pp. 6063.

Stigliani, W. M. 1988. "Changes in Valued 'Capacities' of Soils and Sediments as Indicators of Nonlinear and Time-delayed Environmental Effects." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 10: 245-307.

Stigliani, W. M., P. Doelman, W. Salomons, R. Schulin, G. R. B. Smidt, and S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee. 1991. "Chemical Time Bombs: Predicting the Unpredictable." Environment 33:4-9, 26-30.

Stigliani, W. M., and P. F. Jaffe. 1992. Industrial Metabolism: A New Approach for Analysis of Chemical Pollution and Its Potential Applications.. Research report. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Tschinkel, V. J. 1989. "The Rise and Fall of Environmental Expertise." In: J. H. Ausubel and H. E. Sladovich, eds., Technology and Environment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Van der Sloot, H. A. 1991. "Systematic Leaching Behaviour of Trace Elements from Construction Materials and Waste Materials." In: J. J. J. M. Goumans, H. A. van der Sloot, and T. G. Aabers, eds., Waste Materials in Construction. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 19-36.

Van der Sloot, H. A., E. G. Weyers, D. Hoede, and J. Wijkstra. 1985. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Pulverized-coal Ash with respect to Cement-based Applications. Contract 11.9.1 with the Bureau of Energy Research Projects (BEOP). Petten, Netherlands: Netherlands Energy Research Foundation.

World Resources Institute. 1988. World Resources 1988-89. New York: Basic Books, p. 273, table 17.1.

to previous section to next section

[Ukrainian]  [English]  [Russian]