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close this bookIndustrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU; 1994; 376 pages)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPart 1: General implications
close this folderPart 2: Case-studies
Open this folder and view contents6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980
Open this folder and view contents7. Industrial metabolism at the regional level: The Rhine Basin
Open this folder and view contents8. Industrial metabolism at the regional and local level: A case-study on a Swiss region
Open this folder and view contents9. A historical reconstruction of carbon monoxide and methane emissions in the United States, 1880-1980
Open this folder and view contents10. Sulphur and nitrogen emission trends for the United States: An application of the materials flow approach
close this folder11. Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United States, 1880-1980
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentProduction-related heavy metal emissions
View the documentEmissions coefficients for production
View the documentConsumption-related heavy metal emissions
View the documentEmissions coefficient for consumption
View the documentHistorical usage patterns
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix
Open this folder and view contentsPart 3: Further implications
View the documentBibliography
View the documentContributors
 

Emissions coefficients for production

Emissions coefficients and estimates abound, especially in the "grey literature." Published numbers disagree spectacularly in some instances. Some of the early EPA-sponsored studies (such as NRC, 1977b; GCA, 1973; Davis, 1972, 1980) were admittedly crude, but being readily available - have been widely quoted, especially in surveys such as those carried out by the National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council in the mid-1970s (NAS, 1980; NRC, 1977a; NRC, 1977c, 1981), and also in the more recent series of symposium volumes edited by Nriagu (Nriagu, 1978, 1980a, 1980b, 1980d). Reasons for disagreement among authors include use of questionable data in some early estimates, aggregation from nonrepresentative samples, failure to distinguish between different process stages (for example in the primary copper industry), failure to distinguish between land-destined and other wastes, and failure to distinguish between gross (uncontrolled) emissions and net emissions after the implementation of controls.

The only truly satisfactory approach for a complex industry is a combination of materials-balance and plant-specific emissions data, as exemplified by Survey of Cadmium Emission Sources (GCA, 1981) in the case of cadmium. In the case of copper, the best source we have uncovered is the second edition of Metallurgy of Copper, published in 1924 (Hofman and Hayward, 1924). It is regrettable that the few such studies tended to focus on only a single pollutant and neglected to estimate the overall effectiveness of controls in effect at the time of the study. This makes it very difficult to assess the average level of emissions control actually in effect at a given time. We have made our own rough estimates, however, as will be discussed later in more detail.

Tables 1 and 2 summarize our assumed emissions coefficients for metallurgical activities and fossil-fuel combustion, respectively. Table 3 shows our assumed particulate emission-control efficiencies since 1880.

Table 1 Uncontrolled emissions from metallurgical operations (ppm)

Metal
(reference)
Steel and
foundries
Smelt, con-
vert copper
Smelt,
refine lead
Secondary
copper
Secondary
lead
Secondary
zinc
Arsenic (NRC, 1977b; Lowen-
teach and Schlesinger, 1979)
15.2 8,000
(refinery
800-900)
       
Cadmium (GCA, 1981) 3.5-4.0 350-650 1,750-2,100 -    
Chromium (GCA, 1973) 6.5-7.0 - - - - -
Copper (Nriagu, 1980a; Davis, 17.5-22.5 2,500-5,000 - 500-1,000    
1972; PEDCo, 1980)            
Mercury (URS, 1975) - 26 air

1 water

9 air

0.5 water

- - -
Lead (Nriagu, 1978) 200-300 2,000-5,000

(refinery 25)

20,000-23,000 500-1,000 20,000-23,000 -
Zinc (Nriagu, 1980d) 27-370 9,000-11,000 500-1,000 500-1,000 300 9,000-11,000

Table 2 Uncontrolled emissions from fossil-fuel combustion (ppm)

Metal (reference) Coal Residual oil Distillate oil
Arsenic (NRC, 1977b; Lowenbach 0.10 (coal) 0.3 -
and Schlesinger, 1979)      
Cadmium (GCA, 1981) 0.88 (coal) 2.3 0.150
Chromium (GCA, 1973) 17.00 (coal)

260.00 (ash)

2.9 (oil)

1,300.0 (ash)

-
Copper (Nriagu, 1980a; 15.60 (coal) 0.7 (oil)  
Davis, 1972; PEDCo, 1980) 240.00 (ash)    
Mercury (URS, 1975) 0.16 0.13 0.066
Lead (Nriagu, 1978) 4.5    
Zinc (Nriagu, 1980d; Davis, 1980) 4.8-8.5 0.025  

Table 3 Estimated particulate emission control efficiencies over time (percentage of particulates removed, by weight)

  Copper and Other smelters and Coal-fired
lead smelters melting furnaces utility boilers
1980 99 97 99
1970 95-97 80-90 98
1960 94-96 50-75 97
1950 93-95 0-70 95
1940 92-94 0-65 90
1930 90-93 0-60 85
1920 80-90 0-50 60
1900 30-60 0 0
1880 0 0 0

Dust- and smoke-control technologies were first applied to some nonferrous smelters and refineries early in this century, partly because of the inherent value of the flue dust (e.g. to recover arsenic and precious metals). Cottrell precipitators were used, in addition to dust chambers, in the copper industry prior to 1914 (Hofman and Hayward, 1924). In 1915, the Balbach lead refinery in Newark achieved 90 per cent particulate recovery using a Cottrell precipitator (Hofman, 1918); by 1933, virtually all copper smelters included Cottrell treaters obtaining better than 90 per cent dust-collection efficiency. Efficiencies cited in Newton and Wilson (1942, table 5) included Garfield, Utah (90 per cent), Anaconda, Montana (90 per cent), Noranda, Quebec (95 per cent), and Cerro de Pasco, Peru (97 per cent). However, dust recovery efficiency from ferrous melting furnaces was much lower because of the low value of the recovered materials.

Table 4 Average annual US metal production (1,000 metric tons)

  Total
raw steel
production
Total
copper
smelter
output
Primary
copper
refinery
output
Copper
recovered
from old
scrap
Total
lead
smelter
output
Secondary lead,
incl. refined
from foreign
bullion
Slab
zinc
from

scrap
1980 100,250 1,163 1,271 567 539 692 48.4
1970 119,371 1,362 1,526 454 490 538 69.3
1960 86,060 901 1,294 388 366 404 52.1
1950 74,295 793 1,027 408 414 435 52.3
1940 58,133 769 1,075 314 461 284 44.2
1930 37,500 618 868 293 530 278 30.4
1920 35,175 532 715 151 478 160  
1900 11,619 269 242a 27b 310 225c  
1880 1,268 27 25a 3b 103    

All data are five-year averages centred on year shown, except:

a. 1880, 1900 estimated at 90 per cent smelter output (remainder = old scrap).

b. Assumes secondary production is 10 per cent of smelter output in 1880 and 1900 (probably too high).

c. 1900 estimated from 1899 US Census data (lead refined from imported bullion).

It must be pointed out that pollutants (e.g. fly ash) removed from waste streams by "end-of-pipe" control technologies, like Cottrell precipitators, are usually disposed of in landfills. Such disposal is not necessarily permanent. Landfills can (and often do) leak. However, we have not considered the problem of toxic landfill leachates in this paper. To this extent, we have underestimated total emissions.

Table 4 gives the average national production by decade for seven categories of metals: steel, blister copper, primary refined copper, secondary refined copper (from old scrap), lead bullion, secondary refined lead, and secondary slab zinc.

Table 5 gives the average annual national combustion of fossil fuels by decade and by category.

The computation of heavy metal emissions from coal and fuel oil combustion now proceeds in a straightforward fashion by using the gross emissions coefficients (tables 1 and 2), assumed control efficiencies (table 3), national average annual metals production data (table 4), and national average fossil fuel consumption data (table 5). The results are given in tables 6 and 7.

Table 5 Average annual US combustion of fossil fuels (million metric tons)

  Bituminous
coal, elect
utility
Bituminous
coal, class
I railroads
Bitumi-
nous coal,
industry
a
Bituminous
coal, coke
production
b
Bituminous
coal, resid.
commerc.
c
Anthra-
cite
coal
Residu-
al fuel
oil
Distillate
fuel oil
Direct
TEL
in gas
d
1980 501.2 0.0 57.8 57.4 5.8 3.4 128.9 160.2 0.12
1970 290.0 0.0 76.8 81.6 11.3 8.0 114.9 137.6 0.19
1960 156.6 1.5 84.1 69.8 27.4 15.6 79.8 99.5 0.11
1950 85.2 57.3 108.3 93.2 72.7 36.5 77.5 57.8 0.08
1940 45.6 81.8 119.2 69.9 75.6 43.9 51.4 23.2 0.03
1930 36.0 85.8 125.3 57.0 83.5 57.8 50.7 30.3 0.00
1920 31.3 110.7 130.7 57.8 87.1 72.5 30.5 25.9 (d)
1900 7.6 57.2 67.2 30.2 28.1 49.3 1.1 2.8  
1880 2.0 14.8 17.4 7.8 7.3 12.8 0.1    
  (a) (b) (c)  

a. Includes cement, steel, rolling mills and other.

b. Includes gas manufacture.

c. Residential and commercial establishments (retail distributors).

d. Lead content of tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) in gasoline, not gasoline consumed (see Ayres et al., 1988, vol. II, chap. 8).

Table 6 Average annual US metallic emissions due to metallurgical operations (metric )

  Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Mercury Lead Zinc
Year Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High
1980 169 173 24 31 20 21 90 143 0.4 0.4 1,157 1,556 216 1,285
1970 630 1,182 82 191 78 167 334 969 1.2 2.1 3,866 10,503 799 9,883
1960 874 1,669 114 253 140 301 515 1,432 1.1 1.7 6,742 18,427 1,109 17,079
1950 902 2,498 128 394 145 520 550 2,357 1.3 1.8 7,631 33,565 1,210 29,242
1940 979 2,343 136 350 132 407 526 1,929 1.5 2.0 6,767 25,344 1,202 23,108
1930 852 1,845 133 302 98 263 429 1,446 1.5 2.2 6,118 19,356 1,014 15,318
1920 978 2,028 164 410 114 246 478 1,474 1.9 3.8 6,223 16,911 1,039 14,479
1900 1,230 1,900 295 624 76 81 486 1,229 4.1 7.1 9,536 14,244 1,424 6,680
1880 278 261 194 239 8 9 92 168 1.7 1.7 2,367 2,831 334 877

Table 7 Average annual US metallic emissions - fossil fuel combustion (metric tons)

  Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Mercury Lead Zinc low Zinc high
1980 39.3 302 504 188 1.3 28 33 56
1970 35.4 273 513 226 2.0 42 48 82
1960 25.0 193 427 222 2.2 48 53 93
1950 25.5 198 619 408 4.3 89 111 195
1940 19.8 156 893 716 7.8 160 211 372
1930 21.9 175 1,287 1,078 12.0 243 322 569
1920 28.7 243 3,425 3,079 33.6 684 942 1,667
1900 24.3 213 4,077 3,738 38.7 821 1,150 2,037
1880 6.2 55 1,054 968 9.9 212 298 527

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