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close this bookIndustrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU; 1994; 376 pages)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsPart 1: General implications
close this folderPart 2: Case-studies
Open this folder and view contents6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980
Open this folder and view contents7. Industrial metabolism at the regional level: The Rhine Basin
Open this folder and view contents8. Industrial metabolism at the regional and local level: A case-study on a Swiss region
Open this folder and view contents9. A historical reconstruction of carbon monoxide and methane emissions in the United States, 1880-1980
Open this folder and view contents10. Sulphur and nitrogen emission trends for the United States: An application of the materials flow approach
Open this folder and view contents11. Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United States, 1880-1980
View the documentAppendix
Open this folder and view contentsPart 3: Further implications
View the documentBibliography
View the documentContributors
 

Appendix

Table A Silver: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

   
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo-

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Percentage use
1980 26 0 0 4.8 22 2.5 40 0 0 1 3.0 -
1972 42 0 0 4.0 24 2.2 25 0 0 1 1.6 -
1967 42 0 0 4.0 21 2.0 26 0 0 2 3.0 -
1958 57 0 0 2.0 11 2.0 22 0 0 2 7.0 -
1942 70 0 0 0 7 3.0 15 0 0 2 3.0 -
1929 75 0 0 0 3 3.0 15 0 0 4 0 -
1919 80 0 0 0 0 1.5 12 0 0 6 0 -
1900 85 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 5.0 -
1880 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5.0 -
Use in metric tons
1980 1,096 0 0 202 927.4 105.4 1,686.1 0 0 42 126.5 4,215.3
1972 1,819 0 0 173 1,039.2 95.3 1,082.5 0 0 43 69.3 4,329.9
1967 1,318 0 0 126 658.9 62.8 815.8 0 0 63 94.1 3,137.7
1958 1,790 0 0 63 345.4 62.8 690.8 0 0 63 219.8 3,140.1
1942 1,233 0 0 0 123.3 52.8 264.2 0 0 35 52.8 1,761.2
1929 817 0 0 0 32.7 32.7 163.5 0 0 44 0 1,089.9
1919 906 0 0 0 0 17.0 135.0 0 0 68 0 1,132.1
1900 1,005 0 0 0 0 0 59.1 0 0 59 59.1 1,181.9
1880 420 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 23.3 466.6
Emissions from consumptive uses
1980 11.508 0 0 2.023 9.27 105.4 674.4 0 0 21.08 6.323 830.03
1972 19.095 0 0 1.732 10.39 95.3 433.0 0 0 21.65 3.464 584.58
1967 13.837 0 0 1.255 6.59 62.8 326.3 0 0 31.38 4.707 446.84
1958 18.793 0 0 0.628 3.45 62.8 276.3 0 0 31.40 10.990 404.40
1942 12.945 0 0 0 1.23 52.8 105.7 0 0 17.61 2.642 192.94
1929 8.583 0 0 0 0.33 32.7 65.4 0 0 21.80 0.000 128.80
1919 9.510 0 0 0 0 17.0 54.3 0 0 33.96 0.000 114.79
1900 10.548 0 0 0 0 0 23.6 0 0 29.55 2.955 66.69
1880 4.409 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11.67 1.166 17.24

Table B Arsenic: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total

Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteried

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

   
Percentage use
1980 2 0 0 1 0 5 0 30 60 1 0 -
1970 2 0 0 1 0 4 0 45 45 1 0 -
1960 2 0 0 1 0 5 0 80 10 2 0 -
1950 2 0 0 1 0 5 0 80 10 2 0 -
1940 2 0 0 1 0 5 0 80 10 2 0 -
1930 2 0 0 0 0 5 1 80 10 2 0 -
1920 2 0 2 0 0 5 3 75 10 3 0 -
1900 0 0 5 0 0 10 10 60 10 5 0 -
1880 1 0 10 0 0 10 10 40 20 10 0 -
Use in metric tons
1980 0.393 0 0 0.197 0 0.983 0 5.901 11.801 0.197 0 19.67
1970 0.513 0 0 0.256 0 1.025 0 11.532 11.532 0.256 0 25.63
1960 0.358 0 0 0.179 0 0.895 0 14.315 1.789 0.358 0 17.89
1950 0.369 0 0 0.185 0 0.923 0 14.762 1.845 0.369 0 18.45
1940 0.592 0 0 0.296 0 1.479 0 23.663 2.958 0.592 0 29.58
1930 0.415 0 0 0 0 1.037 0.207 16.590 2.074 0.415 0 20.74
1920 0.253 0 0.253 0 0 0.633 0.380 9.494 1.266 0.380 0 12.66
1900 0 0 0.190 0 0 0.380 0.380 2.281 0.380 0.190 0 3.80
1880 0.012 0 0.123 0 0 0.123 0.123 0.494 0.247 0.123 0 1.23
Emissions from consumptive uses
1980 0.039 0 0 1.97 0 492 0 2,950 5,901 19.7 0 9,364
1970 0.051 0 0 2.56 0 513 0 5,766 5,766 25.6 0 12,072
1900 0.036 0 0 1.79 0 447 0 7,158 895 35.8 0 8,537
1950 0.037 0 0 1.85 0 461 0 7,381 923 36.9 0 8,804
1940 0.059 0 0 2.96 0 739 0 11,882 1,479 59.2 0 14,112
1930 0.041 0 0 0 0 518 166 8,295 1,037 41.5 0 10,058
1920 0.025 0 127 0 0 316 304 4,747 633 38.0 0 6,164
1900 0 0 95 0 0 190 304 1,140 190 19.0 0 1,939
1880 0.001 0 62 0 0 62 99 247 123 12.3 0 605

Table C Cadmium: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo-

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Percentage use
1979 2 50.9 13.0 21.9 0 0 11.0 0 0 0 1.1 -
1970 2 49.9 14.4 3.4 0 0 26.3 0 0 0 4.1 -
1963 2 57.6 15.0 7.4 0 0 17.5 0 0 0 0.1 -
1950 3 68.0 17.0 3.0 0 0 9.0 0 0 0 0 -
1940 4 75.0 20.0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1930 4 75.0 20.0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1920 0 0 100.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1880 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
Use in metric tons
1979 35.6 907.0 231.7 390.3 0 0 196.0 0 0 0 19.6 1,782.0
1970 89.5 2,332.8 644.3 152.1 0 0 1,176.8 0 0 0 183.5 4,474.6
1963 96.5 2,779.6 732.9 357.1 0 0 844.5 0 0 0 24.1 4,825.7
1950 114.7 2,598.8 649.7 114.7 0 0 344.0 0 0 0 0 3,821.8
1940 134.3 2,517.8 671.4 33.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,357.0
1930 40.1 752.5 200.7 10.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,003.3
1920 0 0 67.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 67.8
1900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.4
1880 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emissions consumptive uses
1979 0.036 136.06 116 7.81 0 0 29 0 0 0 0.980 290
1970 0.089 334.92 322 3.04 0 0 177 0 0 0 9.173 846
1963 0.097 416.94 362 7.14 0 0 127 0 0 0 1.206 914
1950 0.115 389.82 325 2.29 0 0 52 0 0 0 0 769
1940 0.134 377.66 336 0.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 714
1930 0.040 112.87 100 0.20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 213
1920 0 0 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34
1900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1880 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table D Chromium: consumptive uses, United States, by category

 

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-laneous, NEC Total
Year Metallicuses (except coatings and electrical Plating and coating Paints and pig-meets Batteries and equipment Other electrical uses, instruments, etc. Industrial catalysts, reagents, explosives, etc. Consume radditives, extenders, photography, etc. Agricultural pesticides, herbicides, fungicides Non-agricultural pesticides, except medical Medical, dental, pharmaceutical
Percentage use
1980 58.5 3.0 5.0 0 0 0.5 2.7 0 0.4 0 16.5 -
1968 62.5 4.2 5.0 0 0 0.5 3.0 0 0.3 0 25.0 -
1960 54.0 4.0 6.0 0 0 0.5 3.0 0 0.2 0 32.0 -
1950 50.0 4.0 6.5 0 0 0.5 3.0 0 0.2 0 35.0 -
1940 50.0 3.5 14.5 0 0 0.5 4.0 0 0.2 0 27.0 -
1930 60.0 2.5 7.7 0 0 0.5 4.0 0 0.1 0 30.0 -
1920 50.0 0 15.0 0 0 0.5 10.0 0 0 0 25.0 -
1900 0 0 100.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -
1880 0 0 100.0 0 0 0 0 0   0 0 -
Use in metric tons
1980 151.8 7.78 12.97 0 0 1.297 7.78 0 1.038 0 42.8 259.46
1968 233.8 15.04 17.91 0 0 1.791 9.67 0 1.074 0 89.5 358.16
1960 176.1 13.04 19.56 0 0 1.630 9.78 0 0.652 0 104.3 326.02
1950 129.9 10.39 16.88 0 0 1.299 7.79 0 0.519 0 90.9 259.73
1940 81.4 5.70 23.61 0 0 0.814 6.51 0 0.326 0 44.0 162.83
1930 41.7 1.74 5.35 0 0 0.347 2.78 0 0.139 0 20.8 69.42
1920 16.9 0 5.08 0 0 0.169 3.38 0 0.034 0 8.5 33.85
1900 0 0 6.49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.49
1880 0 0 0.67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.67
Emissions from comsumptive uses
1980 0.1518 0.1557 6.49 0 0 1.297 0.389 0 1.038 0 2.141 11.659
1968 0.2238 0.3009 8.95 0 0 1.791 0.484 0 1.074 0 4.477 17.304
1960 0.1761 0.2608 9.78 0 0 1.630 0.489 0 0.652 0 5.216 18.205
1950 0.1299 0.2078 8.44 0 0 1.299 0.390 0 0.519 0 4.545 15.532
1940 0.0814 0.1140 11.81 0 0 0.814 0.326 0 0.326 0 2.198 15.665
1930 0.0417 0.347 2.67 0 0 0.347 0.139 0 0.139 0 1.041 4.415
1920 0.0169 0 2.54 0 0 0.169 0.169 0 0.034 0 0.423 3.351
1900 0 0 3.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.246
1880 0 0 0.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 337

Table E Copper: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo-

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Percentage use
1980 99.670 0 0 0 0 0.190 0 0.14 0 0 0 -
1970 99.610 0 0 0 0 0.230 0 0.10 0 0 0 -
1960 99.440 0 0 0 0 0.260 0 0.30 0 0 0 -
1950 99.420 0 0 0 0 0.270 0 0.31 0 0 0 -
1945 99.355 0 0 0 0 0.265 0 0.70 0 0 0 -
1940 99.290 0 0 0 0 0.260 0 0.45 0 0 0 -
1930 99.460 0 0 0 0 0.270 0 0.27 0 0 0 -
1920 99.040 0 0 0 0 0.290 0 0.67 0 0 0 -
1900 99.220 0 0 0 0 0.280 0 1.12 0 0 0 -
1880 93.200 0 0 0 0 0.300 0 3.10 0 0 0 -
Use in metric tons
1980 2,214.9 0 0 0 0 4.222 0 3.111 0 0 0 2,222.2
1970 1,964.7 0 0 0 0 4.537 0 1.972 0 0 0 1,972.4
1960 1,414.5 0 0 0 0 3.698 0 4.267 0 0 0 1,422.5
1950 1,559.2 0 0 0 0 4.235 0 4.862 0 0 0 1,568.5
1945 1,945.1 0 0 0 0 5.188 0 13.704 0 0 0 1,957.7
1940 1,727.2 0 0 0 0 4.523 0 7.828 0 0 0 1,739.5
1930 723.5 0 0 0 0 1.964 0 1.964 0 0 0 727.4
1920 732.2 0 0 0 0 2.144 0 4.953 0 0 0 739.3
1900 469.8 0 0 0 0 1.326 0 5.303 0 0 0 473.5
1880 151.3 0 0 0 0 0.487 0 5.033 0 0 0 162.4
Emissions from consumptive uses
1980 11.074 0 0 0 0 4.222 0 0.156 0 0 0 15.452
1970 9.824 0 0 0 0 4.537 0 0.099 0 0 0 14.459
1960 7.072 0 0 0 0 3.698 0 0.213 0 0 0 10.984
1950 7.796 0 0 0 0 4.235 0 0.243 0 0 0 12.274
1945 9.725 0 0 0 0 5.188 0 0.685 0 0 0 15.598
1940 8.636 0 0 0 0 4.523 0 0.391 0 0 0 13.550
1930 3.617 0 0 0 0 1.964 0 0.098 0 0 0 5.680
1920 3.661 0 0 0 0 2.144 0 0.248 0 0 0 6.052
1900 2.349 0 0 0 0 1.326 0 0.265 0 0 0 3.940
1880 0.757 0 0 0 0 0.487 0 0.252 0 0 0 1.495

Table F Mercury: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo-

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Percentage use
1977 0 0 0 49.2 8.8 20.7 0 1.0 13.2 2.1 0.7 -
1970 0 0 0 25.9 13.5 28.0 0 2.9 19.7 5.2 2.9 -
1960 0 0 0 18.1 12.7 13.5 0 5.9 8.2 7.3 2.5 -
1950 0 0 0 33.8 15.0 12.6 0 12.6 8.7 21.5 1.8 -
1942 0 0 6 9.2 7.1 40.0 0 3.0 5.0 27.7 3.0 -
1928 1.3 0 7 7.3 8.6 43.7 0 1.1 4.7 16.7 9.9 -
1920 5.0 0 7 7.0 8.0 42.0 0 0 8.0 15.0 8.0 -
1900 10.0 0 7 3.0 8.0 42.0 0 0 8.0 15.0 7.0 -
1880 42.0 0 5 0 5.0 30.0 0 0 5.0 10.0 5.0 -
Use in metric tons
1977 0 0 0 979.54 175.20 412.1 0 19.91 262.8 41.81 13.94 1,990.94
1970 0 0 0 570.46 297.35 616.7 0 63.87 433.9 114.50 63.87 2,202.56
1960 0 0 0 349.10 244.95 260.4 0 111.87 158.15 140.80 48.22 1,928.72
1950 0 0 0 547.01 242.75 203.9 0 203.91 140.80 347.95 29.13 1,618.36
1942 0 0 66.88 102.54 79.14 445.8 0 33.44 55.73 308.75 33.44 1,114.61
1928 11.9 0 64.10 66.84 78.75 400.1 0 10.07 43.04 152.91 90.65 915.65
1920 42.5 0 59.54 59.54 68.04 357.2 0 0 68.04 127.58 68.04 850.52
1900 35.9 0 39.11 16.76 44.70 234.7 0 0 44.70 83.80 39.11 558.70
1880 353.3 0 42.06 0 42.06 252.4 0 0 42.06 84.12 42.06 841.18
Emissions from consumptive uses
1977 0 0 0 195.91 17.520 412.1 0 15.93 236.52 8.36 6.96 893.3
1970 0 0 0 114.09 29.735 616.7 0 51.10 390.51 22.91 31.93 1,257.0
1960 0 0 0 69.820 24.495 260.4 0 89.49 142.34 28.16 24.10 638.8
1950 0 0 0 109.4 24.275 203.9 0 163.13 126.72 69.59 14.56 711.6
1942 0 0 53.50 20.509 7.914 445.8 0 26.75 50.18 61.75 16.71 683.1
1928 0.595 0 51.28 13.368 7.875 400.1 0 8.06 38.73 30.58 45.52 595.9
1920 2.126 0 47.63 11.907 6.804 357.2 0 0 61.24 25.52 34.02 546.5
1900 2.793 0 31.29 3.352 4.470 234.7 0 0 40.23 16.76 19.55 353.1
1880 17.665 0 33.65 0 4.206 252.4 0 0 37.85 16.82 21.03 383.6

Table G Lead: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo-

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Percentage use
1980 0.16 0 0.06 0.54 0 0 99.2 0.000 0 0 0.017 -
1972 0.12 0 0.03 0.25 0 0 99.6 0.002 0 0 0.019 -
1957 0.25 0 0.06 0.20 0 0 99.5 0.004 0 0 0.019 -
1949 0.42 0 0.11 0.32 0 0 99.1 0.029 0 0 0.016 -
1939 0.76 0 0.37 0.55 0 0 98.3 0.019 0 0 0.009 -
1929 10.18 0 2.70 3.79 0 0 82.6 0.035 0 0 0.669 -
1923 53.73 0 22.99 18.68 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.605 -
1900 60.00 0 30.00 5.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.000 -
1880 60.00 0 30.00 5.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.000 -
Use in metric tons
1980 250 0 97 851 0 0 157,400 0 0 0 26.58 158,625
1972 288 0 76 621 0 0 248,300 3.81 0 0 46.96 249,336
1957 374 0 96 301 0 0 147,700 5.70 0 0 28.50 148,505
1949 443 0 115 341 0 0 104,900 30.73 0 0 17.41 105,847
1939 310 0 150 225 0 0 40,000 7.56 0 0 3.78 40,696
1929 419 0 111 156 0 0 3,400 1.45 0 0 27.51 4,115
1923 374 0 160 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 32.05 696
1900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1880 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emissions from consumptive uses
1980 1.249 0 48.5 8.51 0 0 118,050 0 0 0 1.329 118,110
1972 1.441 0 38.1 6.21 0 0 186,225 0.19 0 0 2.348 186,273
1957 1.871 0 48 3.01 0 0 110,775 0.285 0 0 1.425 110,830
1949 2.217 0 57.4 3.41 0 0 78,675 1.536 0 0 0.871 78,740
1939 1.55 0 74.8 2.25 0 0 30,000 0.378 0 0 0.189 30,079
1929 2.096 0 55.7 1.56 0 0 2,550 0.072 0 0 1.375 2,611
1923 1.871 0 79.8 1.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.602 85
1900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1880 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table H Zinc: consumptive uses, United States, by category

Year

Protective cover

Electrical

Chemical

Biocidal poison uses

Miscel-

laneous,

NEC

Total
Metallic

uses

(except

coatings

and

electrical

Plating

and

coating

Paints

and pig-

meets

Batteries

and

equipment

Other

electrical

uses, in-

struments,

etc.

Industrial

catalysts,

reagents,

explosives,

etc.

Consumer

additives,

extenders,

photo"

graphy,

etc.

Agricultural

pesticides,

herbicides,

fungicides

Non-

agricultural

pesticides,

except

medical

Medical,

dental,

pharma-

ceutical

Percentage use
1977 41 35 12.4 0.5 0 0.2 9.9 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -
1973 45 31 11.7 1.0 0 0.3 8.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 -
1968 44 27 12.2 2.2 0 0.5 7.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 -
1958 43 33 12.6 3.3 0 0.7 6.8 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -
1949 25 45 16.8 3.7 0 0.7 7.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 -
1940 27 39 19.8 4.1 0 0.5 9.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 -
1930 22 39 25.7 2.7 0 0.5 9.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0 -
1920 26 33 26.0 2.7 0 0.6 5.0 0.3 5.5 0.1 0 -
1900 30 25 25.0 5.0 0 1.0 5.0 0.5 8.0 0.3 0 -
1880 35 30 30.0 0   2.5 2.0 0 0 0.5 0 -
Use in metric tons
1977 514.1 438.90 155.50 6.27 0 2.51 124.15 3.76 2.51 1.254 0 1,254.0
1973 643.5 443.29 167.30 14.30 0 4.29 127.27 2.86 2.86 1.430 0 1,430.0
1968 688.6 422.56 190.15 33.65 0 7.83 122.86 3.91 3.13 1.565 0 1,565.0
1958 477.5 366.44 139.91 36.64 0 7.77 75.51 3.33 2.22 1.110 0 1,110.4
1949 217.5 391.50 146.16 32.19 0 6.09 65.25 1.74 1.74 0.870 0 870.0
1940 186.5 269.38 136.76 28.32 0 3.45 63.55 1.38 1.38 0.691 0 690.7
1930 104.8 185.82 122.45 12.86 0 2.38 47.17 0.95 0.95 0.476 0 476.5
1920 102.9 130.59 102.89 10.68 0 2.37 19.79 1.19 21.76 0.396 0 395.7
1900 37.3 31.07 31.07 6.21 0 1.24 6.21 0.62 9.94 0.373 0 124.3
1880 11.9 10.23 10.23 0 0 0.85 0.68 0 0 0.171 0 34.1
Emissions from consumptive uses
1977 0.514 8.778 77.75 0.063 0 2.508 18.622 0.188 0.251 1.003 0 109.67
1973 0.643 8.866 83.65 0.143 0 4.290 19.090 0.143 0.286 1.144 0 118.26
1968 0.689 8.451 95.08 0.336 0 7.825 18.428 0.196 0.313 1.252 0 132.57
1958 0.477 7.329 69.96 0.366 0 7.773 11.326 0.167 0.222 0.888 0 98.51
1949 0.217 7.830 73.08 0.322 0 6.090 9.787 0.087 0.174 0.696 0 98.28
1940 0.186 5.388 68.38 0.283 0 3.545 9.532 0.069 0.138 0.553 0 87.99
1930 0.105 3.716 61.22 0.129 0 2.382 7.075 0.048 0.095 0.381 0 75.16
1920 0.103 2.612 51.44 0.107 0 2.374 2.968 0.059 2.176 0.317 0 62.16
1900 0.037 0.621 15.54 0.062 0 1.243 0.932 0.031 0.994 0.298 0 19.75
1880 0.012 0.205 5.12 0   0.853 0.102 0 0 0.136 0 6.42

Table I Total emissions and consumptive share (quantities in metric tons)

    1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 1900 1880
Arsenic
Emissions from production Low 209 666 899 928 999 874 1,007 1,255 265
  High 212 1,218 1,694 2,523 2,363 1,867 2,057 1,924 267
Emissions from consumption   9,364 12,072 8,537 8,804 14,112 10,058 6,164 1,939 605
Total emissions Low 9,573 12,738 9,436 9,372 15,111 10,932 7,171 3,194 807
  High 9,576 13,290 10,231 11,327 16,475 11,925 8,221 3,863 872
Consumption (% of total) Low 98 95 90 90 93 92 86 61 70
  High 98 91 83 78 86 84 75 50 69
Cadmium
Emissions from production Low 326 354 306 326 292 308 406 508 249
  High 333 464 446 592 506 477 653 837 293
Emissions from consumption   228 846 894 769 714 213 34 0 0
Total emissions Low 554 1,200 1,200 1,095 1,006 521 440 508 249
  High 561 1,310 1,340 1,361 1,220 690 687 837 293
Consumption (% of total) Low 41 70 74 70 71 41 8 0 0
  High 41 65 67 56 59 31 5 0 0
Chromium
Emissions from production Low 524 590 567 764 1,026 1,385 3,539 4,152 1,063
  High 525 680 729 1,139 1,300 1,550 3,671 4,158 1,063
Emissions from consumption   12 17 18 16 16 4 3 3 0
Total emissions Low 536 607 586 779 1,041 1,389 3,542 4,155 1,063
  High 537 697 747 1,154 1,316 1,554 3,674 4,161 1,064
Consumption (% of total) Low 2.18 2.75 3.11 1.99 1.50 0.32 0.09 0.08 0.03
  High 2.17 2.40 2.44 1.35 1.19 0.28 0.09 0.08 0.03
Copper
Emissions from production Low 278 560 737 958 1,242 1,507 3,558 4,224 1,060
  High 331 1,195 1,654 2,765 2,645 2,523 4,554 4,968 1,136
Emissions from consumption   15 14 11 12 14 6 6 4 1
Total emissions Low 294 575 748 970 1,256 1,513 3,564 4,228 1,061
  High 346 1,209 1,665 2,777 2,659 2,529 4,560 4,971 1,137
Consumption (% of total) Low 5.26 2.52 1.47 1.26 1.08 0.38 0.17 0.09 0.14
  High 4.46 1.20 0.66 0.44 0.51 0.22 0.13 0.08 0.13
Mercury
Emissions from production Low 2 3 3 6 9 13 36 43 12
  High 2 4 4 6 10 14 37 46 12
Emissions from consumption   844 1,257 639 712 683 596 547 353 384
Total emissions Low 846 1,260 642 717 692 609 582 396 395
  High 846 1,261 643 718 693 610 584 399 395
Consumption (% of total) Low 99.81 99.74 99.48 99.22 98.66 97.78 93.90 89.20 97.05
  High 99.81 99.68 99.40 99.15 98.58 97.68 93.59 88.52 97.05
Lead
Emissions from production Low 1,185 3,908 6,790 7,720 6,926 6,361 6,907 10,357 2,579
  High 1,585 10,546 18,475 33,654 25,504 19,600 17,595 15,065 3,043
Emissions from consumption   118,110 186,276 110,826 78,739 30,081 2,615 73 0 0
Total emissions Low 119,295 190,184 117,616 86,460 37,007 8,976 6,980 10,357 2,579
  High 119,694 196,822 129,301 112,393 55,585 22,214 17,668 15,065 3,043
Consumption (% of total) Low 99 98 94 91 81 29 1 0 0
  High 99 95 86 70 54 12 0 0 0
Zinc
Emissions from production Low 250 846 1,162 1,321 1,413 1,336 1,981 2,574 632
  High 1,342 9,965 17,171 29,436 23,480 15,887 16,146 8,717 1,404
Emissions from consumption   103 127 99 98 88 75 62 20 6
Total emissions Low 353 973 1,260 1,419 1,501 1,411 2,043 2,594 638
  High 1,445 10,092 17,270 29,535 23,568 15,962 16,208 8,736 1,410
Consumption (% of total) Low 29.3 13.0 7.8 6.9 5.9 5.3 3.0 0.8 1.0
  High 7.1 1.3 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5
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