Marshaling Technology for Development - Proceedings of a Symposium
Proceedings of a Symposium
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
November 28-30, 1994
Technology and Development Steering Committee
Office of International Affairs Finance and Private Sector
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
This report has been prepared by the Technology and Development Steering Committee, which includes members from both the National Research Council and the World Bank. Support for the Symposium on Marshaling Technology for Development was provided jointly by both organizations.
A limited number of copies of this report are available from:
Office of International Affairs
Additional copies are available for sale from:
National Academy Press
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-71477 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-05349-8
Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT STEERING COMMITTEE
Gerald P. Dinneen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering Jean-Francois Rischard, Vice President, Finance and Private Sector Development, World Bank
Jordan J. Baruch, President, Jordan J. Baruch Associates
National Research Council Staff
E. William Colglazier, Executive Officer
The World Bank, headed by its president Mr. James D. Wolfensohn, is a multilateral development institution whose purpose is to assist its developing member countries further their economic and social progress so that their people may live better and fuller lives. The term “World Bank” refers to two legally and financially distinct entities: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). The IBRD and IDA have three related functions: to lend funds, to provide economic advice and technical assistance, and to serve as a catalyst to investment by others. Working with its borrowers, the Bank places poverty reduction at the center of its country assistance strategies.
The Vice Presidency for finance and Private Sector Development, led by Mr. Jenn-François Rischard, was created in January 1993 to centralize the Bank's efforts to develop more vibrant and competitive private sectors in client countries. Most of the time of its approximately 200 specialized staff is spent helping the Bank's regional staff across all six regions to improve the quality and effectiveness of Bank assistance for private sector development, frequently through innovative lending and technical assistance operations. The remainder of their time is spent identifying and disseminating best practices in various areas, through training programs given in and outside the Bank, seminars and conferences, and multiple contracts with external partners of the Bank.
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress and signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning m accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Office of International Affairs (OIA) is concerned with the development of international and national policies to promote more effective application of science and technology to economic and social problems facing both industrialized and developing countries. OIA participates in international cooperative activities, engages in joint studies and projects with counterpart organizations, manages scientific exchange programs, and represents the Academy complex at many national and international meetings directed toward facilitating international cooperation in science and engineering. Dr. F. Sherwood Rowland, Dr. Harold Forsen, and Dr. David Rall are the foreign secretaries of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, respectively.
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