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close this bookAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO; 1996; 397 pages)
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View the documentAbout this book
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1: Basics of agricultural development
Open this folder and view contents2: Vegetables and small fruits in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents3: Staple crops
Open this folder and view contents4: Multipurpose trees
Open this folder and view contents5: Farming systems and gardening techniques
Open this folder and view contents6: Soil health and plant nutrition
Open this folder and view contents7: Water resources
close this folder8: Plant protection and pest control
View the documentResources
View the documentPlant protection treatments
View the documentLarge animals
View the documentInsect and mollusk pests
Open this folder and view contents9: Domestic animals
Open this folder and view contents10: Food science
Open this folder and view contents11: Human health care
Open this folder and view contents12: Seeds and germplasm
Open this folder and view contents13: Energy and technologies
Open this folder and view contents14: From farm to market
Open this folder and view contents15: Training and missionary resources
Open this folder and view contents16: Oils
Open this folder and view contents17: Above-ground (urban) gardens
View the document18: What is ECHO?
View the documentAdditional ECHO publications
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes - issue 52
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes: issue 53
Open this folder and view contents28 additional technical notes about tropical agriculture
Open this folder and view contentsPrinciples of agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsGood nutrition on the small farm

Plant protection treatments

USE STP TO MAKE "YELLOW STICKY TRAPS." Yellow sticky traps are used in greenhouses and elsewhere to monitor and even reduce populations of certain insects. Because many insects are especially attracted to yellow objects, they will settle onto a yellow card. If a transparent sticky substance is on the card, they will be trapped. It is easy to use even in remote locations, if you can find an adhesive.

HortIdeas reports that Agriculture Canada researchers have successfully used STP oil treatment. STP traps caught about as many insects as "Stickem," a commercially available coating for sticky traps. I do not know how many countries have STP or a similar product, but there is no town in the United States too small to have this famous additive for motor oil.

They found that STP can be uniformly applied with a paint brush to cardboard traps outdoors (4x11 inch cardboard painted on both sides with two coats of bright yellow alkyl semi-gloss paint, which made the cards waterproof). The STP does not cloud up when damp, it allows easy repositioning of trapped insects for identification, it does not drip and make a mess and it rarely traps large insects. A drawback is that traps must be re-coated after a heavy rain.

MORE ON INSECT TRAPS. For many growing papaya in the Americas, the papaya fruit fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda is a major pest. These insects, resembling a wasp in appearance, use their long ovipositor to lay eggs inside the seed cavity of the fruit. Larvae feed on the seeds, burrow out of the fruit, drop to the ground, and pupate in the soil.

Dr. Hal Reed recently sent us an article discussing the use of a simple trapping system for this pest. This basically consisted of a sticky-coated fruit mimic (12.7 cm diameter green sphere), coated with a controlled release formulation of a synthetic sex pheromone. In field tests, up to 10 female papaya fruit flies were caught per trap per week. Dr. Reed mentioned that a co-worker of his recently returning from Costa Rica reported very good success with lower pheromone dosages and believes it will prove to be a good survey tool and control method.

The pheromone is not commercially available yet, but a few researchers in Costa Rica and Florida are in the developing stages of making it so (in 1996). In the meantime, Dr. Reed suggests that the spheres alone would catch some flies (3 per week in the report) and afford limited fruit protection. He said that the spherical shape, 12.7 cm size and green color are key. "Perhaps one could use green balloons covered with tree sap." We will be very interested in hearing from any readers who try this approach.

We were referred to Rex Renfro, a farmer and integrated pest management consultant in Florida's tropical fruit region, who has first-hand experience with the method. In fact, he was involved in the initial USDA work. Rex does not believe it has commercial potential here because the "stickum traps" had to be removed and cleaned every ten days. "The green sphere would become black with insect bodies." Also the papaya fruit flies seemed to be repelled by the smell of the trapped insects. The cost of labor is prohibitive here, but this might not be a limiting factor in other countries. Because of the cost problem, research will probably be directed toward non- sticky traps with pheromone attractant and insecticide.

Does it work? Like a true scientist, Rex was hesitant because he did not have enough data to do a statistical analysis. "A negative result [i.e. lack of fly damage] is hard to prove without a detailed experiment, and we lacked funding for that." What he observed, though, was that they would have a fruit fly problem, would put up the traps, and the problem would disappear. After removing the traps the problem arose again and again disappeared when the traps were put up. He cannot rule out the possibility that this occurred by chance.

Rex added that those who spray their fields should first carefully note the time of day when flies are seen in the field. They normally live in more dense vegetation and travel to the papaya field at a certain time each day. In Florida that is mid-afternoon; in Costa Rica it is in the morning.

How many traps are enough? Rex put one on each tree on the outer row. The flies do not migrate very far into a papaya field, except when their population is unusually high, so the outer perimeter is sufficient. To attach them he simply pushed a welding rod into the plastic sphere, then pushed the other end right into the trunk of the tree. It did not seem to hurt the tree.

Other tips on controlling the pest: Because young larva need seeds as a food source, use seedless varieties or those with thicker walled fruits (the ovipositor is just so long). It is very important to remove and bury (over 6" deep) all fallen infected fruit. At ECHO we had some trees that bore poor quality fruit, so we left it on the ground. Soon we had so many flies that every single fruit on the farm was filled with larvae.

HOW CAN I GROW LADY BIRD BEETLES (COCCINELLA SPP.) IN CAPTIVITY? Harold Watson in the Philippines noticed that lady bird beetles were eating the plant lice that have done so much damage recently to leucaena trees in that country. He asked how he could grow them in quantity to release into special problem areas.

We visited Dennis Warkenten at the Yoder Brothers nursery near ECHO, one of the largest plant nurseries in the USA. Dennis is involved in both research and technical application of pest control operations, including biological control whenever possible. The answer was surprising.

It is true that these beetles are sold commercially in the States. However, to their knowledge, they were not raised in captivity. There are certain places in the mountains near our west coast where huge populations of the beetles come to rest during the winter. They are scooped up by the shovelful while they are dormant. When eventually warmed up, they resume activity. They mentioned that it is really not an effective approach for an individual to bring lady bird beetles into his garden because they are "programmed" to disperse when they resume activity (they were all clumped together before), so the first thing they do is leave the garden. Dennis also checked a reference for diets used in mass-rearing insects and found no reference to lady bird beetles.

A few years later, Wayne Niles, now a missionary in Haiti, visited ECHO. He had just done a laboratory project in a biological control course at the University of Florida in which he mass-produced ladybugs! We asked him to put his experience in writing for members of the ECHO network who might face this need. His comments follow:

"Raising insect enemies of harmful insects is fairly easy once you get a knack for it. In a developing country an enterprising student or villager might be taught to rear such insects as a means of livelihood, selling the insects as pest control. You need suitable containers, a food supply, and a few minutes each day for sanitation and feeding. Large numbers of natural enemies are not necessary if you can pre-inoculate your plants before the pests build up. The juvenile stages are voracious and render the best control because they do not fly away. Adults leave eggs and move on.

"A reasonable strategy would be to maintain several dozen females on artificial media in captivity and to regularly transport the eggs they lay (on leaves, for example) out to the field near sites of potential pest infestation. This augmentation of the natural ladybug population is necessary because they require 2-3 weeks per generation and would build up more slowly than aphids or psyllids.

"A word of caution, however. Be sure the ladybugs you are rearing will devour your pest. I am amazed by the diversity of ladybug species and their specificity of diet. Collect and rear only those adults that you are absolutely certain are eating your pest (not the honeydew they produce or the mold growing on the honeydew)."

The adult ladybug beetles were collected from an aphid-infested field, then were maintained in 9 cm plastic petri dishes. The female beetles were fed all the aphids that they could eat. The aphids were collected by holding an infested plant over a stiff piece of paper and beating the plant. They could be kept for up to two weeks in a tightly capped plastic bottle at 4 C. The mean daily aphid consumption by adults was 36 and mean daily egg production was 25. Larvae ate an average of 190 aphids over a 19-day period before reaching adulthood.

He enclosed a photocopy of a few paragraphs from an article by Li concerning the mass rearing of ladybugs on artificial media in China. If you do not always have a source of aphids and want to see this article, drop us a note. "I suspect adequate results can be obtained without the hormones and other exotic materials in the Chinese recipes. One can always throw a few aphids into the artificial media to supply whatever is lacking." One example was the ladybug Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, which is used to control mealybugs. It can be mass produced in the laboratory using mealybugs (grown on pumpkin or buds of potato) as food, but adults can be reared with a semi-artificial diet consisting of powdered milk, honey, yeast, a little royal jelly and dry mealybugs. Another ladybug diet contained 5 g pig liver, 0.5 g brewer's yeast, 1 g honey, and 0.05 g vitamin C (plus optional preservative).

EXPERIENCES WITH THE NEEM TREE AS AN INSECTICIDE. (For an introduction to neem and information on neem seed and products, refer to Chapter 4 on Multipurpose Trees.)

The tree originated in India or Burma, but is widely grown in much of Africa. It is used widely in India for its insecticidal and medicinal properties, but primarily for firewood in Africa. There are several active compounds, concentrated primarily in the seeds. Some inhibit larval development and reduce female fertility, others act as repellents and antifeedants. These compounds are most effective against the following families: Coleoptera (beetles and their larvae), Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and locusts). There are some reports of control of aphids, scales and whiteflies.

Large quantities of neem are not needed for insecticidal use. For example, 2 ml of oil mixed with 1 kg of beans which are to be stored protects against pests; 25g of ground kernels or 50g of ground seeds extracted with 1 liter of water by standing overnight then filtered through tissue can be sprayed with a knapsack sprayer. For harvest and treatment of seeds, in many areas seeds are easy to collect from the ground because birds or fruit bats eat the juicy and sweet fruits and spit out the kernels. Where this does not occur, the harvested ripe fruits need to be pulped. If water is available the risk of infection by fungi can be reduced by washing the grains after collecting them.

For further processing (oil, water extracts) and the storage the kernels should be well dried by spreading these on a hard ground in the sun. To avoid molding, kernels should always be stored in a well-aerated recipient such as a jute sack. Never store them in a plastic bag. Molding can be due to aflatoxin-producing fungi, a substance which is highly toxic to human beings even in low concentrations. To prepare seeds for planting dry them carefully, if possible in the shade, because temperatures above 45oC will reduce germination. Storage for more than one month will also decrease the rate of germination. For immediate sowing kernels do not have to be dried. (The above is excerpted from a Technical Note by M. Dreyer in Togo.)

There are many active ingredients in neem, but azadirachtin is perhaps most important. It is found in both leaves and seeds. For over 25 years, Professor Ahmed Sadiq in Sudan has been working with the use of neem in pest control, and CARE has started trials in collaboration with him. The seeds have about twice the potency of leaves, but seeds are only available for 3-4 months each year, so they are working with leaves. Leaves are dried in the shade, because the ultraviolet rays from the sun will break down the active ingredient. When the leaves are dry, they are crushed to a powder in a mortar and pestle. They can then be used directly for dusting crops or as a powder in stored foods. The powder can also be mixed with water and sprayed on crops.

Most farmers like to see pests drop dead right away. Neem does not have this effect, with a few exceptions. Its main effect is as a repellent. If insects do eat the treated plant, the neem has a hormonal and growth-regulator effect. Local farmers have used it only one year. Those who treated okra with it said grasshoppers avoided treated plants.

Farmers who treated watermelon seeds with neem powder said that rats which normally eat the seeds did not eat the treated seeds. Neem is not usually thought of for rodent control, but it has a flavor which perhaps the rats did not like. (The above is abstracted from an article in the magazine Baobab, #5, 1990. They in turn learned it from "The Farming World" of BBC World Service.)

Dick Lockman in Pakistan says that they use the dried leaves for moth protection of woolen clothing in storage. A few leaves in the pockets and scattered among the items prevent moth damage. R. N. Mall in Pakistan wrote, "We learned during the Health Education Program that in some villages the seeds are crushed and the oil is being used against head lice, which is quite effective."

Don Mansfield in Mali had success using neem leaf tea to control termites (note below), but he tried another neem recipe with disappointing results. He had heard of placing a mixture of dry neem leaves and ashes in barrels of peanuts. "I put a thin coating about every foot. It has been almost impossible to keep peanuts here for any length of time without serious damage by the weevils. The people here use a powder of DDT and Malathion, which seems very dangerous when they intend to eat the peanuts." Why did it not work, since even wood ash by itself is supposed to be effective? The book Natural Crop Protection suggests the effect of ash is in part due to its filling the small spaces between the seeds. Newly hatched weevils have more difficulty finding partners and are forced to deposit all their eggs on a small number of seeds, thus preventing an explosive buildup of populations. Even a large amount of sand is often effective. Perhaps this experiment should be repeated, mixing the ashes thoroughly with the seeds rather than layering them.

INFLUENCES OF NEEM ON NEMATODES. "There is evidence that leachates from the litter of certain trees and shrubs [Ed: water that has soaked through the litter] have nematicidal properties, e.g. Azadirachta indica (neem), Ricinus communis (castor bean) and Leucaena leucocephala." Farmers in Sao Luis put 1 kg of neem leaves per square meter in the soil (25 cm deep) before planting carrots in order to control soil nematodes, according to Dr. Warwick Kerr in Brazil.

PESTICIDE FROM SEED OF THE NEEM TREE MARKETED IN FLORIDA. The following is abstracted from HortIdeas: "Margosan-O, the first commercial insecticide derived from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency and is being test marketed. So far its official use is limited to greenhouse use on bedding plants, potted plants, foliage plants... and other non-food crops." This formulation is used as a systemic insecticide. That means that rather than just being located on the surface it is moved throughout the plant following drenching of the soil. It appears to be practically nontoxic to mammals, birds and many beneficial insects, including honey bees. It is also biodegradable.

SOMETHING NEEM WILL NOT DO. There has been a stream of reports concerning how extracts from seeds or leaves of the neem tree can control various insects and even some fungal diseases. Unfortunately, a study in England has shown that azadirachtin, the principle active ingredient from neem, has a negligible effect on the feeding behavior of slugs. (This information taken from HortIdeas, March 1992, p 33.)

CAN A "PESTICIDE TREE" SUCH AS NEEM HAVE SERIOUS INSECT PESTS? The ILEIA Newsletter (March 1990) says that a scale insect, Aonidiella orientalis (oriental scale) is often associated with neem trees in Africa and elsewhere. It is not harmful under normal conditions, but outbreaks can become serious when plants are stressed. For example, the drop in groundwater level when Lake Chad dried out led to an outbreak.

"Several scale insect species exist on neem, avoiding the insecticidal components of the host by uptake of plant juice from the phloem. This is practically free of azadirachtin," the major insect control chemical in neem. They conclude that fear of a pest like the psyllid that almost wiped out leucaena in Asia is not justified, but beware of monocultures of neem (i.e. large plantings containing only neem trees).

DEVASTATING DISEASE OF NEEM TREES IN WEST AFRICA (1992 report). We are suddenly hearing from many in our network about this disaster. Mike Benge with USAID phoned to alert us to the problem and to say that they were sending a team to investigate. Steve Maranz in Niger writes that the neem disease has now reached all the way to Senegal. [Ed: That's as far west as one can go in Africa.] "It should be noted that to the villagers here, none of the products and services rendered by neem compare to its value as a shade tree. When there is nothing in the bare landscape between you and the blazing sun, the thick shade of a neem is heavenly. So much more the loss, then, when a 20 year old neem tree dies." On a related note, Steve writes, "I saw that our cowpeas were infested with beetles (I assume the bruchid beetles one reads about). I asked our field technician if he had ever used neem oil to control these pests. His answer was interesting. He said he knew it was effective, but would rather lose half his cowpeas than have to taste neem in his food. This is from someone who eats kola nuts every day, which are as bitter as quinine."

Steve sent a copy of a letter from George Eaton, director USAID mission to Niger written to the United Nations representative in Niger (and directed toward the broader development community) concerning this disease. Because of the importance of this problem, I will quote at length.

"Early this year the Government of Niger requested assistance from USAID/Niger to carry out an investigation and determine the nature of the disease. investigation was conducted by plant pathologist Dr. Paul Batra in June/July. Dr. Batra confirmed the existence of an apparently widely dispersed disease affecting large numbers of neem trees. ...[He] collected plant material and soil samples which were analyzed in the United States. The disease has been provisionally diagnosed as an infection by a soil-borne fungus." [Mike Benge says they are still unsure of the cause.]

"Subsequent investigations by CARE/Niger staff in the Maggia Valley have confirmed that a very high percentage (100% of their sample) of the mature pollarded neem [i.e. the tops cut off, probably to use in firewood] and over 15% of the younger neem were affected. In addition 100% of the 1991 planting stock and many private woodlots are affected, as well as neem seedlings in the Tahoua nursery. As a result, CARE/Niger has proposed no further planting of neem until further notice.

"Subsequent investigations in and around Niamey by USAID/Niger staff have confirmed a high incidence of the disease in mature trees planted around town, ... in the Niamey Greenbelt, as well as in younger trees in several urban plantations. has been noticed that the outer layer of the cambium of diseased trees (just under the bark) is bright red. This is true for trees that show external signs of the disease (e.g. a dead branch) as well as for those that do not yet show these signs. We are in the process of obtaining samples [elsewhere. If the same symptoms are present], this would provide a way of more easily diagnosing the disease at an earlier stage."

He then explains how neem was brought from the Indian subcontinent to Sudan in 1925, from there to Nigeria in 1935, then to Senegal in 1944 and Mali in 1953. It presumably came from Nigeria to Niger in the 1940's, where it is the principal species for reforestation (currently 2 million trees). "Given the high probability that most neem planted in West Africa come from a very narrow genetic base, it is expected that little resistance to this disease is likely to be found in the local population. USAID, ICRISAT Sahelian Center and possibly others are continuing to study the problem."

This last statement should be expanded. Sometimes a single packet of seed planted for evaluation gives such good results that a large project develops from its offspring. Possibly every seed in that packet came from one or a few related trees. There is nothing wrong with this in itself. But if large acreages are planted and a disease or insect problem arises that seriously harms the trees, it is possible that every tree will be equally susceptible. In the tree's country of origin a lot of genetic diversity would exist, possibly including resistance to the current problem.

An example of such vulnerability might be the kiwi fruit industry in New Zealand. At a New Crops Symposium, a scientist from New Zealand said that kiwi fruit was introduced to his country some years ago by a missionary who brought seed from China. He said it is quite possible that every seed might have come from a single fruit. They are working now to make sure there is a broader genetic base by bringing in plants from China.

Have you had such success with a tree species that thousands of trees might someday be planted? Can all the trees be traced to a single packet of seeds? If so, you should consider obtaining additional packets from different locations, preferably from the center of origin of that tree. If you have one variety of a species that is particularly desirable, e.g. a particular kind of leucaena, it is especially likely that it has a limited genetic pool to call upon in time of need. In a case like this you should seek out additional leucaena varieties, even if some are not quite as good for your purposes as your favorite.

This is also a good time to mention again how important it is to have as wide a number of species as possible making up the core of your development efforts. As any one species becomes more widely used, the likelihood that an epidemic might occur increases and the greater the damage it can cause your program.

Later, Mike Benge with USAID sent a copy of a telegram he received from scientists working on the problem, which I summarize: "While there are still many neem trees (particularly in plantations) that continue to suffer from decline, many other neems (in villages, along roadsides and in the Majjia Valley windbreaks) have leafed out and gone through a period of unusually heavy flowering. In some cases the same trees have flowered twice in the last several months. While this is a hopeful sign, it is still too early to tell whether the new foliage will be maintained. We are continuing to monitor the situation closely."

The disorder is clearly distinct from the neem scale insect problem reported in the area. No evidence was found supporting earlier reports that a verticillium fungus is causing the disease. In fact there is no evidence for any "primary infectious disease." Three fungi have been isolated at ICRISAT, but are believed to play only a secondary role. There are no signs of either viruses or mycoplasma-like-organisms. "Hodges, Beatty and Boa have concluded that the disorder resembles a type of disease commonly known as 'decline' and is most likely caused not by a pathogen but by one or several types of abiotic environmental stresses."

TEPHROSIA VOGELII FOR INSECT CONTROL AND GREEN MANURE. Several members of our network wrote us about this plant for different reasons.

Beth Adams wrote from Malawi, "I planted several rows of leucaena trees on the edges of terraces, for green manure and erosion control. They are doing well and beginning to flower. I've found a shrub that seems to be much better though, fish bean or Tephrosia vogelii. It produces an incredible amount of leaf matter, grows very quickly, and is very easy to establish.. I planted them about 2 feet apart and now, 7 months later, they are almost a solid wall. They are not used as fodder."

"I have been very impressed with fish bean as an insecticide. Some of my students told me they had used the leaves to kill caterpillars, so we tried it. It killed every caterpillar overnight. It was incredible since most natural insecticides don't seem to work that quickly. We did an experiment on an okra crop that was full of aphids using Malathion, tephrosia bean extract, soap (1 teaspoon per liter) and a tephrosia/soap mixture. The latter had the best results, tephrosia and Malathion were about the same, and soap was least effective. We've not been able to use neem because the trees planted in 1992 keep dying back and then regrowing. So I am encouraging students to plant tephrosia since it is much easier to establish here and can be used as a green manure as well."

Emmanuel Soko in Tanzania is an extensionist working with Fr. Rupper, who has frequently written and shared seeds. Emmanuel shared how tephrosia is used for insect control in grain storage. "Take fresh leaves and dry them under the sun. Grind the dried leaves into a powder. Mix 100 grams of powder with 100 kg of maize to control maize weevils and the larger grain borer; with 100 kg of beans to control the bean bruchids. The chemical is effective up to three months. After that time the process must be repeated.

"The plant has many other uses. To control ticks, lice and flies, animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pets) are washed with the extract of the plant. To make the extract, fresh leaves and branches are pounded in a mortar. This is diluted with five times that volume of water before applying to the animals.

"To make an insecticide, allow the above mixture to soak overnight or boil it for 30 minutes. Add a bit of soap to help the spray stick to the leaves. It can be used with garden vegetables, fruits and field crops, to control termites, ants, beetles, aphids, cutworms, various bugs and weevils, stalk borers, flies etc.

"In the evening the walls of the room, especially corners, are beaten with fresh tephrosia branches to repel mosquitoes, lice, ticks, cockroaches, etc. It is fed to animals for intestinal problems."

Roland Lesseps sent a copy of a fact sheet written by his colleague Andy McDavid at the Kasisi Agricultural Training Center in Zambia, from which a few excerpts follow.

"It has been used as a fish poison for hundreds of years and an insecticide for over a hundred." "Cattle deaths have been reported as a result of drinking water of poisoned fish ponds. Also, reports have been made from one village of people getting sick after eating fish poisoned with the extract. I do not advise its use as a fish poison.

"The shrub may grow as rapidly as 2-3 meters in 7 months. The compound leaves contain the highest concentration of rotenoids, which are responsible for its insecticidal effectiveness. ...Its compounds are effective against a number of different pests (tested at least 90% effective against termites, citrus aphids, red spider mites). They break down in about 7 days (2-3 days in bright sunlight)." Seeds should "be soaked in water for about 24 hours for good germination (about 90%). Plant about 1 meter apart." If very large numbers are planted, use 35,000 seeds per ha for greatest leaf yield.

"In harvesting, only the leaves need to be taken off the shrub. ... If removed carefully, the shrub will continue to produce leaves for ... extract or mulch. The most effective concentration for killing insects was found to be 20 g of leaves for every 100 ml of water. If a scale is not available, take the amount of leaves equal to the weight of an empty 300 ml coke bottle, then add 7 coke bottles full of water. ...The crushing of leaves does not need to be done perfectly; a plastic feed bag and large rock can be used." After soaking for 2 hours (NOT in direct sunlight) filter the suspension through a cloth and use directly in the sprayer.

"It is important that the spray have contact with the pest. If the pest is underneath the leaves, be sure to actually hit the pests. ...If all the spray is not used immediately, it will still be approximately 70% effective 24 hours later, IF kept out of direct sunlight." Beyond that its potency drops quickly. The "used" leaves may be reused for a second extract. Tests have not determined concentrations to use but have shown that effective chemicals are left. "The leaves contain an antifeedant, so termites will not eat it. In areas of heavy termite infestation this mulch can be very helpful."

Seeds are available from Emmanuel or Fr. Rupper at P.O. Box 1, Peramiho, TANZANIA, East Africa. If you want more than a small trial packet, correspond with them to determine how much money to send. ECHO also has trial packets.

Samuel Ratnam in Singapore sent a technical note on Tephrosia vogelii. "The tree has a resemblance to Tephrosia candida. However, its pods are larger, longer and very hairy. ... After 5-6 months of growth, the average green material per hectare is about 27 tons. The yield of nitrogen is 112 kg per ha." He adds, "It is used there mainly as a bush green manure in rubber and oil palm plantations and as a shade tree for young tea, cocoa, coffee, and rubber." His company, Inland and Foreign Trading Co., harvests and sells tephrosia seed (Block 79A, Indus Road # 04-418/420; Singapore, 0316; phone 2722711; fax 2716118).

Steve Kennedy in Nepal grew the seeds we sent him and reported back to us: "The tephrosia plants are about a year old and are three meters high. We had no insect problems until flowering, but now about 10% of the flowers have been attacked by aphids. Apparently the flowers do not have the insecticidal compounds that are found in the leaves. I have mixed dried and pounded leaves with water and used as an insect spray on ants and various kinds of caterpillars, with good effect. Caterpillars died after some hours. Spraying or even scattering dried leaves across the path of ants coming into the house stopped them for a few days. I sprayed the tephrosia solution on the tephrosia flowers and two days later had no more aphids. Other expatriates and Nepali co-workers have expressed an interest in planting and using this species in their gardens."

FIGHT MILDEW WITH BAKING SODA. The Avant Gardener newsletter reports that ordinary baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has both prevented and cured powdery mildew on strawberries, eggplant and cucumbers when sprayed weekly at the rate of 1/4 ounce per gallon of water. Powdery mildew is a fungus disease of plants that is most common when days are warm and nights cool. The leaves have a readily visible powdery coating on top. Its incidence is increased by high humidity. In India, powdery mildew was controlled on pea plants by spraying every two weeks with garlic oil. (These generous folks gave us blanket permission to excerpt from their newsletter for your benefit. Their address is P.O. Box 489, New York, NY 10028, USA; $20 per year in USA; $24 overseas.)

MORINGA LEAVES TO PREVENT DAMPING-OFF DISEASE OF SEEDLINGS. Christoph Ochsenbein, an extension officer in Cameroon, requested seeds of Moringa oleifera because he had read they could be used to control damping off. I had heard this rumor, so asked him where he read this. It is in a table in the book Natural Crop Protection (see above). An anonymous, unpublished Filipino handbook is cited as the source. It claims that moringa leaves are worked into the soil one week before sowing. This time is sufficient to release the effective substances into the soil. This seems feasible because antibiotic substances are known to be in parts of the moringa tree. The main use is protecting seedlings in seedbeds. We will list this in a "wish list" publication we send to professors identifying certain hunger-related subjects needing research. In the meantime, if you do a controlled experiment with it, let us know the results.

BLOSSOM END ROT ON TOMATOES. While a fellow gardener and I were sharing gardening experiences the other day, he mentioned that he had added too much nitrogen and caused blossom end rot. This is a very common problem with tomatoes. A spot begins to rot where the blossom was originally attached (opposite from where the stem attaches). I replied that it is calcium deficiency that causes blossom end rot.

It turns out that we were both right. The March/April issue of National Gardening Magazine quotes Ohio State tomato physiologist Dale Kretchman, "Nitrogen fertilizer will encourage lush top growth, at the expense of the root system. The plant will get too big for its roots to supply it with other nutrients and water, and you set the stage for blossom end rot, which is really a response to calcium deficiency. There is no doubt that gardeners [in the USA] fertilize their tomatoes too much."

BUNCHY TOP ON PAPAYA. Some of ECHO's Malaysia exotica papaya trees developed what I presumed to be the disease "bunchy top." Because this is a viral disease, we did nothing to try to control it. Fruit production almost stopped, and what did ripen was so low in sugar as to be uninteresting. We cut the trees and have replanted.

Yong Lee Ming at the Tenom agriculture experiment station in Malaysia sent us some fresh seed, and some important information. "The problem may not be due to a virus. The symptom you described appears to be similar to what we have in Malaysia, but so far is not a big problem and often easily controlled. The so-called bunchy top symptom is often caused by thrips and/or a fungus." He sent us a research report done in Malaysia called "Bunchy and malformed top of papaya cv. 'exsotica' caused by Thrips parvispinus and Clado sporium oxysporum." (Write us if a copy of the article would be helpful.) Excerpts follow.

A previously unrecognized disease of papaya (cv. exsotica) was first observed on nursery plants, then in the field, where more than 50% of plants were affected. Plants showing the symptoms, bunchy and malformed tops, were slow to recover, and had almost no yield if infection occurred before fruiting.

"At a cursory glance, the symptom appeared similar to papaya mosaic virus disease which has not been reported in Malaysia thus far. Closer examination, revealed that the leaves did not exhibit the marked chlorosis and vein clearing of the crown leaves which are characteristic of papaya mosaic disease."

Subsequent research showed conclusively that the syndrome was due to the attack of thrips followed by infection of young leaves with the fungus C. oxysporum. The fungicide benomyl alternated weekly with mancozeb gave complete control. Control of thrips with insecticide was partially effective, but not recommended. It is believed that the thrips are pollinating agents as well; inadequate pollination in papaya may lead to premature fruit drop and reduced fruit size. The cultivar exsotica (developed for its disease resistance) was more susceptible than some other Malaysian cultivars.

[It is almost impossible to hear the "s" in 'exsotica.' I missed it when I was first given this seed in Malaysia and have introduced it widely as 'exotica.' At this late date I will not try to change it back. Besides, 'exotica' has intriguing connotations in our culture and I have become attached to it. I guess this is a living example of how languages change.] For a small packet of Dr. Ming's seed, drop us a line. Bonnie and I much prefer its flavor to any of the other solo papaya cultivars.

CORNELL PREVENTIVE SPRAY is used weekly on ECHO's farm on plants which are susceptible to insect or disease. We mix 5 T (tablespoons) vegetable oil, 1 T baking soda, and 4 T Safer's soap OR 2 teaspoons liquid dishsoap (like Ivory liquid) in one gallon of water. As with any spray, test on a small area if used for the first time on a plant before spraying a large area. The baking soda is apparently helpful in fungal control (see above).

COOKING OIL SPRAY FOR HOME GARDENS. The February 12, 1991 issue of the Wall Street Journal reports that the U. S. Department of Agriculture is recommending that home gardeners use a cooking oil spray to control aphids, white flies and spider mites. "Mix one tablespoon of dishwashing detergent to one cup of oil (soybean oil was used in the trials, but the implication is that other kinds are suitable), then mix between 1-2½ teaspoons of the oil-plus-detergent with one cup of water. The detergent causes the oil to emulsify in the water so that it can be sprayed. Spray directly on plants every 10 days. Eggplants, carrots, lettuce, celery, watermelons, peppers and cucumbers have been successfully protected by the spray, but it burns leaves of squash, cauliflower and red cabbage leaves. Researchers claim that the oil spray is only about one-third as costly as commercial pesticides with equivalent effectiveness." [Thanks to both HortIdeas and Central American Development Foundation for referring us to the article. The latter added a note, "Do not use palm or coconut oil because if not used promptly they will gel within 24 hours."]

MAKING YOUR OWN BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES. (From Int'l Ag-Sieve, Aug-Sept 1988.) The cassava hornworm is being controlled without chemicals in Brazil. Farmers collect hornworm larvae that are infected with a particular viral disease in the field. These diseased larvae are liquefied in blenders and combined with water. The larvae can be frozen and stored. When sprayed on the crop, the virus kills 90-100% of the hornworm larvae. The method is disseminated now in Brazil and frozen virus can even be purchased. Another article reports on a U.S. farmer who uses a similar approach to control soybean caterpillars on his 500-acre farm with a bacterial disease. He grinds dead caterpillars found in the field into a powder which he freezes for use the following summer.

The June 1988 issue of the Cassava Newsletter contained a lot more details about using this method. I am passing it on in some depth not only for those who have a problem with this particular worm, but as an example of an approach that might be successful with many pests.

The cassava hornworm (Erinnyis ello) damages seed stakes, destroys leaves, and increases the incidence of blight. The field is searched for larvae that have a disease caused by the Baculovirus. You can identify them because dead or near-dead larvae are found hanging from leaf petioles by their "false feet". Use only recently killed larvae (those that break open easily and spurt a whitish liquid). Mash 10-12 large larvae (7-9 cm long) or 22 medium-sized larvae (4-6 cm long) in water and strain the solution through a clean cloth or very fine strainer so that it will not clog your sprayer. The filtered liquid containing the Baculovirus is mixed with sufficient water to spray one hectare of cassava.

The best time to spray is 5 days after the larvae hatch. As a rough guideline, apply the virus when the field is infested with 5-7 small larvae (as small as 2 cm) per plant. Younger, smaller plants need protection at a lower population of larvae than do larger plants. Inspect the field at least weekly. Larvae hide on the underside of leaves or in the apical buds. Inspection needs to be thorough because larvae longer than 5 cm are not satisfactorily controlled by the virus.

Larvae become infected only after eating the virus. They stop causing damage after 4 days and die a couple of days later. Spray in the early morning or dusk to avoid the hottest part of the day.

Only recently killed larvae should be collected. If they cannot be used immediately, place them in a container and freeze them. Thaw the frozen larvae before preparing the solution. (It might be a good idea to keep some frozen larvae in case you cannot find diseased caterpillars next season.)

In the initial experiments, larvae in the control plots (no spray) began dying about the same time as those that were sprayed. This shows that the virus can be spread easily, perhaps by wind, rain, people, insects, or birds. This allows it to reach places which the spray did not directly contact.

This work with the cassava hornworm brings to mind something I have been wondering about for some time. Suppose ECHO mailed you in a regular envelope a small packet of Bacillus thuringiensis powder (Dipel), a bacterial spore that is used widely to control many kinds of caterpillars. Would you be able to kill a few cater- pillars with it, then make a spray to kill even more, soon building up a large enough reserve for large-scale use?

I first considered this when Mac Renfro brought a brief note in an old issue of Mother Earth News to my attention. The author sprayed caterpillars, subsequently blended the diseased caterpillars in warm milk and incubated this for a time. This was then used to spray more caterpillars. The work reported in the International Ag-Sieve makes me think the warm milk and incubation might not be needed. Want to give it a try? We will send a very small amount of this harmless (to people) powder if you agree to share your results with us.

A RESEARCH IDEA: CAN AN ORGANIC CATERPILLAR CONTROL BE MADE IN A COCONUT? Bacillus thuringiensis is a common and effective organic method for control of caterpillars and other insects. Though not unusually expensive for an insecticide, its cost can be prohibitive to many small farmers. "BT," as it is sometimes called, is a living bacterium sprayed on plant leaves. Young, growing caterpillars can get a fatal intestinal disease after just one bite of a sprayed leaf. They usually stop feeding quickly and die in a day or so.

A technique has been developed in Peru for multiplying populations of a related Bacillus thuringiensis that is effective in killing mosquito larvae. This raises an interesting possibility that the BT used to kill caterpillars could be multiplied in the same manner. (We have been told that some commercial BT preparations contain the toxin rather than live bacteria. Obviously such preparations would be inappropriate for this technique.)

Mike Fennema, a former ECHO intern now with the CRWRC in Cambodia, shared with us a correspondence he had with Dr. Humberto Guerra of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, A.P. 4314, Lima 100, Peru (e- mail: concerning the work. Some of our readers have access to a laboratory where they might be able to investigate this.

"Ripe coconuts that appear to be free of fungal infection are chosen. The area of the 'eyes' is cleared of coconut fibers with a stiff steel brush. A large nail, fitted with a handle, is dipped in alcohol and flamed using a lit candle. This is then used to perforate the coconut, using a twisting motion.

"The inoculum, containing some 10,000 bacteria, is introduced through the hole, then the hole is closed with a piece of cotton and sealed using wax drippings from the candle. The coconut is left at room temperature for 48-96 hours." Because their goal is to control mosquito larvae, the coconuts are cut open and the contents dispersed into ponds.

"The inoculum is being prepared in the laboratory under aseptic conditions. A better-equipped bacteriology lab is necessary, and toxicity tests should be performed. It is not recommended to pass the culture from coconut to coconut because a fungal or bacterial contaminant could appear and the Bacillus culture be lost. The toxicity test we use is to determine the LD50 of each preparation against mosquito larvae."

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