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close this bookAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO; 1996; 397 pages)
View the documentOther ECHO publications
View the documentAbout this book
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1: Basics of agricultural development
Open this folder and view contents2: Vegetables and small fruits in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents3: Staple crops
Open this folder and view contents4: Multipurpose trees
Open this folder and view contents5: Farming systems and gardening techniques
Open this folder and view contents6: Soil health and plant nutrition
Open this folder and view contents7: Water resources
Open this folder and view contents8: Plant protection and pest control
close this folder9: Domestic animals
View the documentWorking with animals
View the documentFeeds and animal nutrition
View the documentBees
View the documentCamels
View the documentCavies
View the documentChickens
View the documentFish
View the documentMuscovies
View the documentRabbits
View the documentHealth and parasites
Open this folder and view contents10: Food science
Open this folder and view contents11: Human health care
Open this folder and view contents12: Seeds and germplasm
Open this folder and view contents13: Energy and technologies
Open this folder and view contents14: From farm to market
Open this folder and view contents15: Training and missionary resources
Open this folder and view contents16: Oils
Open this folder and view contents17: Above-ground (urban) gardens
View the document18: What is ECHO?
View the documentAdditional ECHO publications
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes - issue 52
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes: issue 53
Open this folder and view contents28 additional technical notes about tropical agriculture
Open this folder and view contentsPrinciples of agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsGood nutrition on the small farm


MUSCOVY DUCKS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN THE TROPICS. We mentioned that both Frank Martin with the USDA and Fred Harder with the Heifer Project had told us that for really efficient meat production in the tropics we should be looking at Muscovy ducks. I asked if any of our readers could help us out from their own experience. We received some interesting replies.

Fremont Reiger in Botswana wrote, "Along with our rabbits and a few laying hens, we kept quite a few Muscovy ducks in Zaire. We had duck as our favorite Sunday dinner. We found them much more hardy than chickens-once you got them past the early few days. As hatchlings they were very susceptible to drowning in waterers, rain, getting killed by predators, etc. But once they were a week or two old, they were almost disease free, and grew very rapidly. We fed them chicken mash and often had a hen and her new brood on grass in a false bottom pen/house combination that we moved each day over new grazing grass. I have seen Muscovy ducks in many countries under varied conditions. They seem to thrive everywhere. Taboos against duck meat were a problem in Zaire with some groups. Fencing is easy because ducks normally require a quite low fence. An occasional one may take off and end up outside the pen. We had to build some small pens to keep drakes away from new ducklings, for they would kill them. They do not need water to swim in, but need lots of water to drink, which they dirty quickly by mixing feed in their water. Setting hens also need water to wet their feathers to maintain incubation humidity conditions."

Cheryl Campbell wrote from Zaire. "I have had good success with Muscovies. Unlike rabbits, cattle, goats and local chickens, the ducks need no veterinary products or special feed requirements. Where we work we can never count on medicines or feed supplements. Muscovies like water but survive well on only a dish pan full. They breed readily on land and are not as well equipped for swimming as are other ducks. There is no need to make a pond for them. They are better foragers than most ducks. Here in the village they survive quite well on foraging only. They take much less care than rabbits.

"They come in various colors. Ours are black and white. The Africans think the black ones are less susceptible to hawks. We started with one male and two female adults. After 8 months we have had about 25 eggs to eat and 45 ducks of various sizes to eat. We had losses from drakes killing ducklings until we separated them. You must keep the ducklings out of the rain and tall wet grass. I keep them penned up in the rabbit house at night. In fact, I raise the ducks with rabbits because they clean up all the feed that the rabbits spill. Make sure that the feeder and waterer are close together and that the waterer is shallow enough that they cannot get trapped in it and drown. I use a basin with a small log in it so they can get out. They need to have enough water to keep their noses clean. Feeding can be just a nice lawn if you don't mind them wandering. They usually will return to their pen before dark. They eat insects and grass enough to keep them healthy. I supplement my older ducks with manioc flour mixed with very little millet and corn. Or I feed millet if I have a lot. They can survive from scavenging around the yard, but grow very slowly. When I can feed them a high protein ration with soybean flour or dried fish in a millet base during the first 2-3 weeks, they grow much faster.

"Nesting boxes need not be fancy, just a corner in a dry place. No floor or ceiling is needed: let them nest on the ground-fowl eggs often need the extra moisture. Provide some dry grass or straw for nesting material, then partition them from any disturbances in a 3-sided box. They lay about 9-16 eggs, then set for 33-35 days.

"Spacing in the pens is important because too many ducks can result in cannibalism. You will know when there are too many because there is a definite pecking order, with the youngest the most affected. After 3 age groups were put together we noticed the fourth group was not well accepted. So we put all the older ducks in a new pen and start to fill the old one again. Once they are old enough to defend themselves we can add them to the older ducks. Drakes especially tend to fight more if they are crowded. In other words, it is nice to have an extra pen."

Geoff Clerke in Papua New Guinea sent us a good 8-page mimeographed article called "Muscovy Ducks for PNG Villages." (We can send you a copy of this upon request.) Here are a few highlights. The Muscovy is ideally suited for PNG village conditions where farmers rely on natural incubation and foraging. You need good shade, because the ducks may get sick if they stay in the sun for long. Do not put them near a pig fence because hogs kill and eat ducks. If possible, feed commercial feed for 6 weeks. A duckling will eat about 3 kg. In the highlands you might need a brooder for extra heat for the first two weeks. To do this, make a small round enclosure about 1 m in diameter with flat iron, woven bamboo, cardboard, etc. and cover it with old bags, leaving an uncovered strip about 30 cm wide in the middle. Put a kerosene lamp inside the strip not covered by the bags.

After 6 weeks, ducks can be fed entirely on locally produced food: sweet potatoes, taro, banana, pumpkin, choko, etc. Ducks will eat anything that humans eat, but their food must be cooked. Follow this rule to know how much feed to give them: If they eat everything within half an hour they are still hungry; cook more the next time. If they start to wander away from the feed after half an hour and some is left, they have had enough. Feeding locally-produced feed is not enough. They must be able to graze/forage daily in order to get enough protein, mainly from insects and grass seeds which are not found on bare ground or in short grass. Even a very big fence is not enough because as soon as all the grass is finished it will become bare and hard from grazing and trampling. There must be no fence around a duck house: a fenced-in project is a project that will fail. It is better to have a few ducks lost to dogs or other predators than to have the whole flock dying due to protein deficiency. Lack of protein will result in poor growth, never getting heavy enough to eat. Also, lack of feathers will let them get cold and die. Finally, they will never lay eggs.

In selecting breeding stock, choose the heaviest drake with a belly parallel to the ground. Do not keep any drake which looks like it is standing with the breast much higher than the belly. Do not keep more than 10 ducks for breeding; otherwise, it is probable that the garden produce will be in short supply to feed the flock and all the birds will do poorly. Hens can be kept for 3 years and drakes 2. Ducks start to lay at 8 and 1/2 to 9 months. The first eggs are small and should not be used for hatching, as they are likely to be either sterile or to give small and weak birds. If a duck does not lay eggs, it should be eaten or sold. It can be recognized because (1) it is heavier than the other birds, (2) the flesh around the eyes is red, like a drake, instead of being pink or orange, (3) the space between the two pelvic bones is about 1 finger wide instead of 2 or 3. Eat or sell ducks at 4 months unless they are to become breeding stock. [There is much more practical information like this in the PNG write- up.]

ECHO no longer has Muscovies. We found that muscovies would periodically swing through planting areas eating young vegetables. We fenced in the pond and clipped their wings to keep them in, but then predators killed most of them. When our local bobcat problem is not too serious, we maintain a flock of Khaki Campbell ducks, known for their egg-laying. Ducks are hardy, low-maintenance animals, suited for flooded areas in the tropics where chickens or other animals may not thrive.

Where can you obtain muscovy ducks? Try to obtain ducks in your own country. If this is difficult, you might ask Heifer Project (see above) for help in locating a source; they may know of one near you. Dr. Jim DeVries at Heifer Project said that Muscovy ducklings are especially difficult to ship, even in the States. If they do not receive special care within 48 hours, the losses will be high. It would probably be best to ship eggs, but they are very difficult to hatch in an incubator. He recommended that you hatch them under a chicken or duck.

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