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close this bookAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO; 1996; 397 pages)
View the documentOther ECHO publications
View the documentAbout this book
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1: Basics of agricultural development
close this folderBackground in agricultural development
View the documentNature of small-scale tropical agriculture
View the documentSome common problems
View the documentSteps toward improving small-scale agriculture
View the documentSummary
View the documentBook reviews
Open this folder and view contentsSelecting suitable tropical crops
View the documentResource centers for agricultural development
Open this folder and view contents2: Vegetables and small fruits in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents3: Staple crops
Open this folder and view contents4: Multipurpose trees
Open this folder and view contents5: Farming systems and gardening techniques
Open this folder and view contents6: Soil health and plant nutrition
Open this folder and view contents7: Water resources
Open this folder and view contents8: Plant protection and pest control
Open this folder and view contents9: Domestic animals
Open this folder and view contents10: Food science
Open this folder and view contents11: Human health care
Open this folder and view contents12: Seeds and germplasm
Open this folder and view contents13: Energy and technologies
Open this folder and view contents14: From farm to market
Open this folder and view contents15: Training and missionary resources
Open this folder and view contents16: Oils
Open this folder and view contents17: Above-ground (urban) gardens
View the document18: What is ECHO?
View the documentAdditional ECHO publications
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes - issue 52
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes: issue 53
Open this folder and view contents28 additional technical notes about tropical agriculture
Open this folder and view contentsPrinciples of agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsGood nutrition on the small farm

Some common problems

Water. Water is almost always a problem with small-scale agriculture in the tropics. The availability of water will determine what crops can be grown and at what seasons. However, availability of water to the plant is conditioned by many factors, especially the nature and treatment of the soil. Water management is complex, and therefore only generalities can be given in this publication.

Excess water can damage crops by flooding (excluding oxygen from the soil), loosening roots followed by lodging (falling over) of plants, leaching away nutrients, eroding soil, stimulating weed growth, and making work in the fields difficult. The first solution to excess water is to reduce its effects by providing better systems of drainage (ditches, furrows, or planting mounds).

Lack of water is a constant problem. One solution is to use irrigation. If this cannot be done, loss of water is partially controlled by plowing, terracing, use of pits to capture runoff, mulching, incorporating organic material in the soil, etc. Drought requires the use of appropriate crops (millet is more drought resistant than sorghum; sorghum more than corn). Some crops have drought-resistant varieties. Some soils retain water so well that certain crops can be planted and grown to maturity after rain ceases, without addition of more water. You can expect that small farms will need water management systems to maximize production.

Weeds. Weeds are a major problem on every tropical farm, large or small. As living plants they compete with crop plants for space, light, water and nutrients, and thus reduce yield. Furthermore, they usually produce their seeds before cultivated crops do, and thus assure their future. Seeds of many species live for years in the ground, and cultivation to destroy existing weeds brings previously buried seeds to the surface where they can germinate. Weed control is a major subject. A brief guide to weed control has been printed by ECHO and is available by request.

The major goal of weed control is to reduce the competition with cultivated crops. The elimination of weeds from a field is impossible. Often when one pesky species is controlled, another arises to fill its niche. Practical control is achieved through one or a combination of methods, which might include reduction of germination, reducing the growth rate, or killing the weed during its growth.

It is almost always possible to improve weed control on the small farm. Better weed control will almost always improve yields. Yet, you should be aware that weeds can be tolerated in some situations. It may be uneconomical to control them, especially if they are few in number, not very competitive, or only present as the crop is maturing. A good rule for the time of control is as early as possible.

Soil Fertility. Problems with the fertility of the soil almost always occur on the small tropical farm. Only on those farms of exceedingly rich soil where primary or secondary forest has been cut does one occasionally find fertility that cannot be improved. Soil fertility problems vary in terms of nutrients that are lacking. A soil analysis may be helpful, but is often not adequate. It will not measure other equally important factors such as the availability of nutrients that are present (this is determined in part by the form in which they are held), or the texture of the soil. It appears that the field is very complicated, and it is! The best analysis of the soil may be a small-scale trial of its ability to support crops.

Nevertheless, some very important generalities can be made. No matter what the nutrient problem of the soil, improvement can be made by the addition to the soil of organic material (any refuse from dead plants and animals). This material is best if first composted (rotted by fermentation, producing heat). This is feasible in the home garden, but may not be feasible on the farm. Useful results can be obtained when the organic material is mixed into the soil, or even when it is applied as a deep layer on top of the soil. For best results large amounts are needed. It is difficult to apply too much. The most useful organic material is animal manure. Crop refuse often contains abundant carbon, but little nitrogen. Applying some nitrogen in the form of manure or as chemical fertilizer is desirable. Growing of a crop that can later serve as organic material (green manure crop) is often good practice. The best of such crops are legumes, including the vigorous velvet bean and lablab bean.

Where sufficient organic material is not available, mineral fertilizer will almost always improve yields. When no guidelines are available, equal parts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can be used. The first 100 kg/hectare gives the most dramatic response. Since crop growth may be limited by factors other than fertility, very high rates (e.g. 1000 kg/hectare) are seldom economical on the small farm. Too much mineral fertilizer, especially nitrogen, may even reduce crop yields. It will result in crops that are too soft, have few roots or tubers, or are susceptible to drought.

Appropriate Species and Varieties. Newcomers in a rural area often try to help local people by quickly introducing something that they know to be useful through their previous experience elsewhere. This is such a common error that each would-be reformer or teacher must be on guard for this mistake. Techniques developed elsewhere often do not work out when transferred to another area. New crops are often ill-adapted or not culturally accepted. New varieties of an acceptable crop may fail for numerous reasons. Nevertheless, often the introduction of a better variety of an already commonly used crop will dramatically improve the welfare of the people. It is appropriate to look for innovations. Just remember that all innovations must be carefully tested in the immediate area.

The testing of a new variety can be very complicated or very simple. The simplest approach is to grow the new variety alongside the old, using the same techniques for both, and to harvest, eat, sell, and store both with the farmer, who will rapidly discover which is better. A more advanced approach is to become familiar with what other agencies are testing or developing, and test these materials first.

An even more complicated task is to describe the deficiencies of the existing varieties with the production systems, and to seek the advice of an expert. Often a newcomer will see a problem without understanding it. Low yields, for example, can be caused by a large number of factors. Very high yields are utopian, and may be achievable only when all growing conditions are maximized or all limiting factors are controlled. You may never achieve the maximum, but with improved techniques and better varieties, you should be able to improve yields. What should you do? Proceed cautiously. Find out what has been attempted. Find the rationale behind existing varieties and techniques, and then proceed with caution. Look for new crop varieties first from the agricultural experiment stations and departments of agriculture in the region or country, and from your colleagues in similar situations.

Finally, crop adaptation is often very location- and technique-specific. Changes of area and of technique may change the variety desired. There is no end to the development of new techniques or the testing of new varieties. Don't expect to reach perfection, but strive for improvement.

Pests and Diseases. Every crop plant has its pests and diseases. While the crops, their pests, and diseases may be different in the tropics, the principles of control are about the same. These are mentioned in ECHO's document "Control of Weeds, Insects and Diseases on the Small Farm or Home Garden." Pests and diseases may limit the production of a given crop in a particular region. When resistant varieties are available, their use is usually the most satisfactory and least expensive control. However, resistance cannot be obtained for many crops.

The use of chemical controls has many disadvantages: danger to the user and to others, possible contamination of the farm, killing of beneficial insects, and increased costs. Very often partial control can be achieved by changes in the method of production or cultural practices. Usually farmers know something about these conditions, but may not have developed an integrated approach in which all knowledge available is incorporated into the system of control. There is great opportunity for progress on the small tropical farm through control of diseases and pests. Quite often the disease or pest problem occurs after harvest; thus special knowledge of appropriate harvesting and post-harvesting practices is important.

Interaction of Agriculture and Human Welfare. Agriculture on the small tropical farm is intimately related to the health of the farm families. Both ignorance and custom, as well as lack of food or facilities, may interact with farming plans, food produced and methods of use. A knowledge of good nutrition and good hygiene is desirable if farm families are to be helped. A newcomer who chooses to accept local customs uncritically may literally die. By example and by teaching, families can be taught the basics of nutrition and hygiene.

Nutrition. Farm families often fall far short of eating balanced diets of the four basic food groups (meats and eggs, milk and milk products, breadstuffs, and vegetables and fruits). In the third world, three kinds of malnutrition are evident, often combined: protein, carbohydrate, and vitamin and mineral. Ample information is available in this field and often is printed in the local language and is related to local custom. Publications are usually available from local government agencies.

Attacking only part of the nutritional problem is seldom the solution. An integrated approach is almost always necessary, including growing the right foods, producing animals, and using the foods rightly. Sometimes good nutrition involves introducing foods into the diet that are not customarily used. This is often difficult because people do not change their preferences easily. Sometimes the new food can be incorporated into traditional dishes. Sometimes acceptance begins first with the children.

Some of the crops or foods with great nutritional promise are high-lysine corn (also called hard endosperm opaque-2 corn) which is useful for its balanced amino acids, leaves of many kinds for vitamins A and C, new legumes for protein (including white in place of colored beans), soybeans for soybean milk, seeds of heavy- seeding squashes and their relatives for protein and edible oil.

On the other hand, rural peoples of the third world often eat more than enough starches, and thus might consume too many calories in relation to oil, protein, vitamins, and minerals. This is often because such foods are readily available. These people may need to adopt new dietary habits for a healthier diet.

Hygiene. The life span of rural people is often shortened due to poor hygiene. Dehydration of babies due to diarrhea is a major problem in the third world. Some of the basic problems in hygiene are the following: Pigs and chickens distribute their excrement throughout the yard, and thus parasites and intestinal infections are common. Personal hygiene (use of toilet or latrine, bathing, washing before eating) may be difficult, impossible, or neglected. Proper precautions may not be used for preparation, storage, or consumption of food. Water for drinking and bathing may be contaminated. Disease-bearing pests may be present.

In advanced countries, the normal practices followed for good hygiene are so common that their essential nature is overlooked. It is dangerous to assume that rural conditions are equally valid alternatives. Good hygiene is always desirable and often will make a life-or-death difference.

Family Economy. Farm families, like many others, need money. The lack of money often leads to poor nutrition. A pig on a small farm may be saved to sell when there is great need. The eggs are collected not to eat, but to sell. Crops are grown which have a market, not for their nutritional contributions.

A good farming system integrates crop production (food, feed, fuel), animal production, and making money, with preserving and improving health. (Growing vegetables for a cash crop can sometimes increase on-farm vegetable consumption because there are so many nutritious but not marketable culls.)

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