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close this bookAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO; 1996; 397 pages)
View the documentOther ECHO publications
View the documentAbout this book
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1: Basics of agricultural development
Open this folder and view contentsBackground in agricultural development
close this folderSelecting suitable tropical crops
close this folderTechnical note: selecting the right crop for your location in the tropics or in the subtropics
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentPrincipal factors determining crop potential
View the documentPrediction of suitable crops
View the documentTable I. Ecological or life zones of the tropics, sub tropics, and warm temperate zones
View the documentTable II. Annual crops (or perennial crops grown as annuals) - climatic needs crop : rainfall - temperature - other considerations
View the documentTable IV. Suggested crops for specific climatic zones
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentAppendix I. Maximum ecological amplitudes for some tropical crops
View the documentTechnical note: Comparison charts of tropical crops
View the documentWhat seed would you take to an uninhabited tropical island?
View the documentHow can I garden in the hot humid tropics?
View the documentResource centers for agricultural development
Open this folder and view contents2: Vegetables and small fruits in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents3: Staple crops
Open this folder and view contents4: Multipurpose trees
Open this folder and view contents5: Farming systems and gardening techniques
Open this folder and view contents6: Soil health and plant nutrition
Open this folder and view contents7: Water resources
Open this folder and view contents8: Plant protection and pest control
Open this folder and view contents9: Domestic animals
Open this folder and view contents10: Food science
Open this folder and view contents11: Human health care
Open this folder and view contents12: Seeds and germplasm
Open this folder and view contents13: Energy and technologies
Open this folder and view contents14: From farm to market
Open this folder and view contents15: Training and missionary resources
Open this folder and view contents16: Oils
Open this folder and view contents17: Above-ground (urban) gardens
View the document18: What is ECHO?
View the documentAdditional ECHO publications
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes - issue 52
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes: issue 53
Open this folder and view contents28 additional technical notes about tropical agriculture
Open this folder and view contentsPrinciples of agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsGood nutrition on the small farm
Principal factors determining crop potential

The principal factors that determine crop potential are both internal (genetic) and external (environment). Not only do species of plants vary with respect to their genetic potentials and responses to environment, but even within a given species different varieties or different individuals are distinct in adaptation.

Availability of water. Water occurs everywhere, including in the driest desert. Nevertheless, not all water is available for plant growth. For example, water in the air is not available to most plants. Since almost all crop plants grow in the soil, water availability for practical purposes is the water available to plants in the soil. When excess water falls on the soil, a part may run off even before it can enter, and part of that which enters will be held in the soil by physical and chemical forces. In dry climates runoff can be reduced by contour planting, by furrows oriented crosswise to rain-carrying winds, by plowing, and other treatments on the soil surface. Plants can also be planted at the bottom of furrows or in pits to increase their chance to obtain water. The remainder of the water will move deeper into the soil attracted by gravity until it comes to rest on an impenetrable basin or joins an underground stream or aquifer.

Water is lost from the soil not only by percolation downward but also by evaporation on the surface. The rate of evaporation depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, and also on environmental conditions, chiefly temperature, relative humidity, and wind. In general, sandy soils hold the least available moisture, clay soils and soils of high organic matter hold the most. The water-holding capacity of the soil can be increased, for practical purposes, chiefly by the addition of organic material to the soil. Plants can remove water from the excess flowing through the soil, from basins or aquifers, and from the water that is physically and chemically held in the soil, up to a limit. From a practical standpoint, water availability to a plant is determined also by its ability to retrieve water, with a large and efficient root system. Competing plants (other crops or weeds) also reduce the water available to a particular plant.

Seeds may need water almost continuously in order to germinate, and seedlings may need extra water to grow. The growing plant needs large quantities of water, but may be very adept at getting water because of its root system. The plant that is maturing seeds, fruits or tubers often needs less water. A plant that matures in a short period may avoid drought by its ability to mature when water is available.

Life zones (as defined by Holdridge, see Table I) depend in part on the amount of water received annually. The yearly average rainfall, much more than the extremes, dictates the kinds of woody perennial plants that can be grown without irrigation in a particular zone. The suitability of an annual crop plant for growth in a particular region, however, depends not only on life zone, but also on the water availability through irrigation and through water conservation methods. Distribution of rainfall must also be taken into account in interpreting the life zones. If rainfall occurs over a relatively short period, followed by a dry season, some annual crops might not be able to mature.

Temperature. Temperature affects plant growth directly and indirectly. As temperature increases, chemical activity increases and thus over a certain range, higher temperatures increase growth. However, protoplasm cannot survive excessively hot temperatures. At the other extreme, many plants cannot survive temperatures below freezing. Special organs may be more susceptible to heat (reproductive organs, flowers) or to cold (succulent organs). Some organs, particularly some seeds, may resist both heat and cold. Furthermore, loss of water from plants and soil is increased by high temperatures (as well as by low humidity and wind).

Plants are adapted to particular climates in part by their ability to grow and reproduce at certain temperatures. Among vegetable crops one can distinguish cool season crops (cabbage, lettuce) from hot season crops (corn, squash). Some crops grow best where days are hot and nights are cool (tomato). Life zones as defined by Holdridge depend not only on annual rainfall but also on mean annual temperature.

Altitude and Latitude. Altitude influences temperature and in this way affects plant growth. As altitude increases, temperature decreases. Latitude influences temperature by influencing the amount of light intercepted by a unit area. It also influences daylength. Daylength influences plant growth through hormonal mechanisms which are part of a plants adaptability. For example, short-day plants require or flower best in short days. Long- day plants often flower best only during long days. Some plants are day-neutral and their flowering is not influenced by day length.

Thus, life zones are influenced chiefly by annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. Some of the world's life zones as defined by Holdridge are given in the table. In any region of the earth a person should be able to determine the life zone by weather records. It may now be impossible to do so from the vegetation. Agricultural zones, however, are determined also by availability of irrigation water.

Soil acidity. The acidity of the soil, defined in terms of pH, is a third important factor determining crop potential. While almost all crops grow well in soils with slightly acid pH (6.5), nevertheless crops differ in their tolerance of acidic (low pH) and alkaline (high pH) conditions. The acidity of the soil can be increased with the use of acid forming fertilizers (such as sulphates) and organic materials, or decreased with the addition of lime. These are common agricultural practices. Usually soils of the humid tropics are acid and those of the dry tropics alkaline, but there are exceptions.

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