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close this bookAmaranth to Zai Holes, Ideas for Growing Food under Difficult Conditions (ECHO; 1996; 397 pages)
View the documentOther ECHO publications
View the documentAbout this book
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1: Basics of agricultural development
Open this folder and view contentsBackground in agricultural development
close this folderSelecting suitable tropical crops
close this folderTechnical note: selecting the right crop for your location in the tropics or in the subtropics
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentPrincipal factors determining crop potential
View the documentPrediction of suitable crops
View the documentTable I. Ecological or life zones of the tropics, sub tropics, and warm temperate zones
View the documentTable II. Annual crops (or perennial crops grown as annuals) - climatic needs crop : rainfall - temperature - other considerations
View the documentTable IV. Suggested crops for specific climatic zones
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentAppendix I. Maximum ecological amplitudes for some tropical crops
View the documentTechnical note: Comparison charts of tropical crops
View the documentWhat seed would you take to an uninhabited tropical island?
View the documentHow can I garden in the hot humid tropics?
View the documentResource centers for agricultural development
Open this folder and view contents2: Vegetables and small fruits in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents3: Staple crops
Open this folder and view contents4: Multipurpose trees
Open this folder and view contents5: Farming systems and gardening techniques
Open this folder and view contents6: Soil health and plant nutrition
Open this folder and view contents7: Water resources
Open this folder and view contents8: Plant protection and pest control
Open this folder and view contents9: Domestic animals
Open this folder and view contents10: Food science
Open this folder and view contents11: Human health care
Open this folder and view contents12: Seeds and germplasm
Open this folder and view contents13: Energy and technologies
Open this folder and view contents14: From farm to market
Open this folder and view contents15: Training and missionary resources
Open this folder and view contents16: Oils
Open this folder and view contents17: Above-ground (urban) gardens
View the document18: What is ECHO?
View the documentAdditional ECHO publications
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes - issue 52
Open this folder and view contentsECHO development notes: issue 53
Open this folder and view contents28 additional technical notes about tropical agriculture
Open this folder and view contentsPrinciples of agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsGood nutrition on the small farm
 
Appendix I. Maximum ecological amplitudes for some tropical crops

CROP

TOLERANCES

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

LIFE LENGTH

pH

RAINFALL (cm)

ANNUAL TEMP.

LIFEZONES

Abelmoschus esculentus

Okra

Annual

5.1-7.8

30-250

13-27

Wdm, Txm

Agave fourcroydes

Henequen

Perennial

7.3-7.8

70-250

15-27

Wd, Ttm

Agave sisalana

Sisal

Perennial

5.1-8.3

20-260

15-27

Cm, Ttw

Aleurites fordii

Tung Oil

Perennial

5.3-7.3

60-250

13-25

Wdm, Tdw

Allium ampeloprasum

Leek

*Biennial

5.2-8.3

40-270

7-23

Bu, Td

Allium cepa

Onion

*Biennial

4.5-8.3

30-410

6-27

Bu, Tvw

Allium sativum

Garlic

*Perennial

4.5-8.3

30-260

6-27

Bm, Tvw

Alocasia macrorrhiza

Giant Taro

*Perennial

5.8-7.3

70-420

15-27

Wd, Tm

Aloe vulgaris

Common Aloe

Perennial

6.0-8.0

60-400

19-27

Wdw, Ttd

Amaranthus hypochondriacus

White Amaranthus

Annual

5.2-7.5

70-270

8-27

Cm, Tdm

Anacardium occidentale

Cashew

Perennial

4.3-7.5

70-410

19-28

Sdw, Tvw

Ananas comosus

Pineapple

Perennial

3.5-7.8

70-410

16-28

Wm, Tvw

Annona cherimola

Cherimoya

Perennial

4.3-7.3

80-400

16-27

Wdm, Tmw

Annona muricata

Soursop

Perennial

4.3-8.0

60-420

17-27

Wd, Tvw

Apium graveolens

Celery

*Biennial

4.2-8.3

30-460

5-27

Bw, Sdw

Arachis hypogaea

Peanut

Annual

4.5-8.3

30-410

10-27

Cm, Itw

Areca catechu

Betel Nut

Perennial

4.6-6.8

70-420

15-27

Sdw, Tvw

Arenga pinnata

Sugar Palm

Perennial

5.8-8.0

70-400

19-27

Sd, Tm

Arracacia xanthorrhiza

Arracacha

*Perennial

6.3-6.8

70-130

15-25

Cd, Sdm

Artocarpus altilis

Breadfruit

Perennial

5.9-8.0

70-400

17-27

Sdw, Tdw

Asparagus officinalis

Asparagus

Perennial

4.5-8.2

30-400

6-27

Csw, Tvm

Averrhoa carambola

Carambola

Perennial

4.3-8.3

70-410

18-27

Sdw, Tvw

Bactris gasipaes

Peach Palm

Perennial

5.8-8.0

70-400

19-25

Sdw, Tmv

Bertholletia excelsa

Brazil Nut

Perennial

4.5-6.5

110-410

19-27

Sm, Tdw

Boehmeria nivea

Ramie

Perennial

4.3-7.3

70-410

15-27

Wdm, Tvw

Brassica chinensis

Pakchoi

*Biennial

4.3-7.5

60-410

6-27

Bw, Tdw

Brassica oleracea

Cabbage

*Biennial

4.3-8.3

30-460

5-27

Bmw, Tdw

Brassica pekinensis

Chinese Cabbage

*Biennial

4.3-6.8

70-410

7-27

Cmw, Tdw

Brosimum alicastrum

Ramon

Perennial

6.0-8.0

30-400

19-25

Sm, Tdw

Butyrospermum paradoxum

Shea Butter

Perennial

4.9-5.2

130-140

26-27

Tdm

Cajanus cajan

Pigeon pea

*Perennial

4.3-8.3

30-400

15-27

Wmw, Txw

Calamus rotang

Rattan

Perennial

4.2-5.5

170-420

19-27

Sm, Tw

Camelia sinensis

Tea

Perennial

4.5-7.3

70-310

14-27

Wdw, Tvw

Canarium indicum

Canary Nut

Perennial

7.1-8.1

110-230

25-27

Tdm

Canavalia gladiata

Swordbean

*Perennial

4.3-6.8

70-270

16-32

Wm, Tmw

Canna edulis

Edible Canna

*Perennial

4.3-6.8

70-400

7-26

Cm, Tdm

Capsicum annuum

Bell Pepper

Annual

4.3-8.3

30-460

9-27

Csw, Txw

Carica papaya

Papaya

Perennial

4.3-8.0

70-420

17-29

Wm, Tvw

Casimiroa edulis

White Sapote

Perennial

5.7-8.0

50-400

16-26

Wd, Tdw

Ceiba pentandra

Kapok

Perennial

4.3-8.0

70-420

19-29

Sdm, Tvw

Ceratonia siligua

Carob

Perennial

6.2-8.6

30-400

13-26

Wd, Sdm

Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium

Pyrethrum

Perennial

5.2-7.5

70-260

8-27

Cmw, Sdm

Cicer arietinum

Chickpea

Annual

5.5-8.6

30-250

6-27

Wdm, Txm

Cinnamonum verum

Cinnamon

Perennial

5.8-8.0

150-390

20-27

Sdw, Tdw

Citrullus lanatus

Watermelon

Annual

5.3-8.0

30-400

11-29

Cw, Txw

Citrus aurantium

Sour Orange

Perennial

4.8-8.3

20-400

13-28

Wd, Txw

Citrus limon

Lemon

Perennial

4.8-8.3

30-410

11-28

Cw, Tvw

Citrus paradisi

Grapefruit

Perennial

4.8-8.3

30-410

13-28

Wm, Tdw

Citrus sinensis

Sweet Orange

Perennial

4.3-8.3

30-410

13-28

Wmw, Tdw

Cocos nucifera

Coconut

Perennial

4.3-8.3

70-420

11-27

Sdw, Tvw

Coffea arabica

Coffee

Perennial

4.3-8.0

80-460

11-27

Wdr, Tvw

Coffea canephora

Robusta Coffee

Perennial

4.3-6.8

80-370

20-27

Sdw, Tdw

Cola nitida

Kola Nut

Perennial

4.3-4.8

140-270

23-27

Sm, Tdm

Colocasia esculenta

Taro

*Perennial

4.3-7.4

70-410

11-29

Cw, Tvw

Crocus sativas

Saffron

Perennial

5.7-7.8

50-110

6-19

Bm, Stm

Cucumus melo

Canteloupe

Annual

4.3-8.3

20-400

7-27

Csw, Txw

Cucumus sativus

Cucumber

Annual

4.3-8.3

20-460

6-27

Bmw, Txw

Cucurbita moschata

Pumpkin

*Perennial

4.3-8.3

30-280

7-32

Cmw, Tdm

Curcuma domestica

Tumeric

*Perennial

4.3-6.8

70-420

18-27

Sdw, Tdw

Cymbopogon citratus

Lemon grass

Perennial

4.3-7.3

70-410

18-27

Wdw, Tvw

Daucus carota

Carrot

*Biennial

4.5-8.3

30-460

3-27

Bmw, Tdw

Dioscorea alata

Winged Yam

*Perennial

4.8-8.0

70-420

15-29

Wdm, Tvw

Dioscorea rotundata

African Yam

*Perennial

5.1-5.8

140-280

23-27

Sm, Tvm

Diospyros digyna

Black Sapote

Perennial

5.1-8.0

70-420

19-27

Sdm, Tdw

Diospyros kaki

Japanese persimmon

Perennial

4.3-8.3

30-460

13-27

Wdr, Tvw

Durio zibethinus

Durian

Perennial

4.3-6.8

210-410

18-27

Ww, Tdw

Elaeis guineensis

African Oil Palm

Perennial

4.5-8.0

70-400

21-27

Sdw, Tdw

Elettaria cardamomum

Cardamom

Perennial

4.8-7.4

70-420

21-27

Sdr, Tvw

Eriobotrya japonica

Loquat

Perennial

5.5-8.0

50-400

15-26

Wdm, Tm

Euphoria longana

Longan

Perennial

5.8-8.0

70-400

19-27

Sdw, Tvm

Ficus carica

Fig

Perennial

4.3-8.6

30-400

9-32

Cmw, Txw

Fragaria sps.

Strawberry

*Perennial

4.5-8.3

30-260

5-21

Bmw, Sdm

Garcina mangostana

Mangosteen

Perennial

4.3-8.0

110-420

21-27

Smw, Tmw

Glycine max

Soybean

Annual

4.3-8.2

40-410

7-29

Cmw, Tvw

Gossypium barbadense

Sea Island Cotton

Perennial

4.3-8.3

50-400

9-26

Csm, Tvm

Gossypium hirsutum

Common Cotton

Annual

4.3-8.3

30-270

7-32

Cmw, Tvm


* Grown as an annual

 

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