Types of wall
Compressed earth block masonry enables one to build either loadbearing walls, both thick and thin, or non-loadbearing walls such as partitions which divide up the space within a building. This simple classification offers great architectural flexibility.
For masonry wall systems as a whole, the main problems result from the nature of the stresses which are applied to them.
- Crushing: under the effect of the weight of the wall itself or of a concentrated vertical load.
- Vertical excentric loads resulting from a tensile force (bending out at floor level, for example).
- Horizontal excentric loads resulting from the pressure of a vault on the walls for example.
- Buckling resulting from the accumulated effect of a load stress and from the settling of a wall which is too thin and too high by comparison for example.
- Horizontal loads. These fall into two kinds. On the one hand the uniform pressure of winds on the walls, and on the other the concentrated pressure of earthquakes (i.e. high tensile and bending stress).
For non-loadbearing walls, infill masonry (of a concrete framework of wooden lattice) limits the risk of crushing occuring.
For loadbearing walls, there are several solutions which enable the forces of excentric loads, of buckling or of horizontal loads to be reduced. These include:
- using the thickness of the walls;
Fig. 77: Five great problem.
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