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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
close this folderAbstracts on plant protection
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.
View the document2. Biotechnology's bitter harvest: herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture.
View the document3. Chemistry, agriculture and the environment.
View the document4. Mise au point de techniques appropriées de lir qui seront utilisés par les petits agriculteurs traditionnels d'Afrique tropicale.(developing appropriate ipm technology for the traditional small-scale farmer in tropical Africa).
View the document5. Biological control in developing countries: towards its wider application in sustainable pest management.
View the document6. Transforming plants as a means of crop protection against insects.
View the document7. Utilization of va-mycorrhiza as a factor in integrated plant protection.
View the document8. Activity of four plant leaf extracts against three fungal pathogens of rice.
View the document9. A useful approach to the biocontrol of cassava pathogens.
View the document10. Evaluation of the biological activity of flax as a trap crop against orobanche parasitism of vicia faba.
View the document11. Insect pest management.
View the document12. Economic contributions of pest management to agricultural development.
View the document13. The effects of intercropping and mixed varieties of predators and parasitoids of cassava whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) in Colombia.
View the document14. Prospects for traditional and cultural practices in integrated pest management of some root crop diseases in rivers state, Nigeria.
View the document15. Studies on cowpea farming practices in nigeria, with emphasis on insect pest control.
View the document16. Effect of various fertilizers and rates on insect pest/pearl millet relationship in Senegal.
View the document17. Insect pests of intercrops and their potential to infest oil palm in an oil-palm-based agroforestry system in India.
View the document18. Using weather data to forecast insect pest outbreaks.
View the document19. Insect pest management and socio-economic circumstances of small-scale farmers for food crop production in western Kenya: a case study.
View the document20. Rodent communities associated with three traditional agroecosystems in the San Luis potosi plateau, Mexico.
View the document21. Grain storage losses in Zimbabwe.
View the document22. Controlling weeds without chemicals.
View the document23. Weed management in agroecosystems: ecological approaches.
View the document24. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses.
View the document25. Evaluation of efficient weed management systems in pigeonpea (cajanus cajan l.)
View the document26. Weed management in a low-input cropping system in the Peruvian Amazon region.
View the document27. Poblaciones, biomasa y banco de semillas de arvenses en cultivos de maiz zea mays l. Y frijol phaseolus vulgaris l. Efecto de m+todos de control y rotaciones. (Weed population, biomass, and seed bank in maize and bean crops. Effects of control methods and crop rotations).
View the document28. Effects of groundnut, cowpea and melon on weed control and yields of intercropped cassava and maize.
View the document29. Intercropping and weeding: effects on some natural enemies of African bollworm, heliothis armigera (hbn.) (lep., Noctuidae), in bean fields.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.

Gatekeeper Series No. 29; Int. Inst. for Environment and Development (IIED), London, 1991, 21 pp.

The introduction of commercial pesticides revolutionised pest control.

These modern presticides have helped to control and reduce crop and livestock losses to a remarkable degree.

The use of these pesticides has created some of today's major environmental and health problems: reduction in the abundance and diversity of wildlife, human health hazards associated with acute or chronic exposure to dangerous products in the workplace, and contaminated air, food and water.

The self-defeating nature of the chemical control strategy that dominates today's crop and livestock protection efforts has also become more apparent in recent years. Repeated applications of synthetic pesticides have selected pesticide resistant pests worldwide, and there are now at least 450 species of insects and mites, 100 species of plant pathogens, 48 species of weeds resistant to one or more products. The deaths of natural enemies has allowed previously harmless organisms to reach pest status.

For these reasons, crop protection specialists are increasingly being asked to develop pest control methods that are more compatible with the goals of a sustainable, productive, stable and equitable agriculture. To meet these aims, research must seek to integrate a range of complementary pest control methods in a mutually enhancing fashion, namely as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM focuses on five control areas:


- cultural pest control: the manipulation of sowing and harvest dates to minimise damage, intercropping, vegetation management and crop rotations;

- host plant resistance: the breeding of crop varieties that are less susceptible to pests (insects, diseases, nematodes, parasitic weeds;

- biological control: the conservation of natural enemies, manipulation of natural enemy populations, and the introduction of exotic organisms;

- the wise and judicious use of pesticides: chemical, microbial, botanical pesticides used along with information on economic thresholds;

- legal control: the enforcement of measures and policies that range from quarantine to land and water management practices. This approach to pest management must involve area-wide operations that include many rural households and are enacted for the common good of both farmers and society at large.

Amongst users and promoters of IPM, such as researchers, donors, policy makers, pesticide companies, and extension staff, there are significant differences in emphasis and approaches.

Some of the more fundamental differences are briefly discussed in this paper to identify IPM approaches that reflect and reinforce the goals of sustainable and equitable production systems:


- IPM systemic adjustment or structural change,
- The relative importance given to self-sustaining control methods,
- The stocks of knowledge used by IPM practitioners,
- Research for IPM,
- Changes within IPM science and extension,
- Institutional and policy reforms.

Concluding, there will be a need to focus on structural changes in agroecosystems, give greater importance to self-sustaining control methods, and draw on the local stocks of knowledge useful for pest management.

Future self-sustaining designs that minimize the need for pest control interventions will require more understanding of complex ecological systems. The move towards system design to minimize pest outbreaks calls for knowledge and decision making as IPM becomes more broadly coordinated with land and water management, conservation of biodiversity, public health protection and soci-economic development.

1195 92 - 10/122

Plant protection

Review, USA, biotechnology, sustainable agriculture, herbicide tolerant crops, human health, environment, economics, sociology

GOLDBURG, R. et al.

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