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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
close this folderAbstracts on plant protection
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.
View the document2. Biotechnology's bitter harvest: herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture.
View the document3. Chemistry, agriculture and the environment.
View the document4. Mise au point de techniques appropriées de lir qui seront utilisés par les petits agriculteurs traditionnels d'Afrique tropicale.(developing appropriate ipm technology for the traditional small-scale farmer in tropical Africa).
View the document5. Biological control in developing countries: towards its wider application in sustainable pest management.
View the document6. Transforming plants as a means of crop protection against insects.
View the document7. Utilization of va-mycorrhiza as a factor in integrated plant protection.
View the document8. Activity of four plant leaf extracts against three fungal pathogens of rice.
View the document9. A useful approach to the biocontrol of cassava pathogens.
View the document10. Evaluation of the biological activity of flax as a trap crop against orobanche parasitism of vicia faba.
View the document11. Insect pest management.
View the document12. Economic contributions of pest management to agricultural development.
View the document13. The effects of intercropping and mixed varieties of predators and parasitoids of cassava whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) in Colombia.
View the document14. Prospects for traditional and cultural practices in integrated pest management of some root crop diseases in rivers state, Nigeria.
View the document15. Studies on cowpea farming practices in nigeria, with emphasis on insect pest control.
View the document16. Effect of various fertilizers and rates on insect pest/pearl millet relationship in Senegal.
View the document17. Insect pests of intercrops and their potential to infest oil palm in an oil-palm-based agroforestry system in India.
View the document18. Using weather data to forecast insect pest outbreaks.
View the document19. Insect pest management and socio-economic circumstances of small-scale farmers for food crop production in western Kenya: a case study.
View the document20. Rodent communities associated with three traditional agroecosystems in the San Luis potosi plateau, Mexico.
View the document21. Grain storage losses in Zimbabwe.
View the document22. Controlling weeds without chemicals.
View the document23. Weed management in agroecosystems: ecological approaches.
View the document24. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses.
View the document25. Evaluation of efficient weed management systems in pigeonpea (cajanus cajan l.)
View the document26. Weed management in a low-input cropping system in the Peruvian Amazon region.
View the document27. Poblaciones, biomasa y banco de semillas de arvenses en cultivos de maiz zea mays l. Y frijol phaseolus vulgaris l. Efecto de m+todos de control y rotaciones. (Weed population, biomass, and seed bank in maize and bean crops. Effects of control methods and crop rotations).
View the document28. Effects of groundnut, cowpea and melon on weed control and yields of intercropped cassava and maize.
View the document29. Intercropping and weeding: effects on some natural enemies of African bollworm, heliothis armigera (hbn.) (lep., Noctuidae), in bean fields.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

2. Biotechnology's bitter harvest: herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture.

A Report of the Biotechnology Working Group, USA, 1990, 73 pp.; available from Environmental Defense Fund, 257, Park Avenue South, New

York, NY 10010; price USD 10.00

The objective of this report is to examine the impacts of herbicide-tolerant crops, trees and to recommend changes that will discourage the development and adoption of such crops and trees in U.S. agriculture and forestry.

Modern agriculture depends heavily on herbicides-chemical plant killers-to control weeds. Nearly 80% of the herbicides used annually in this country are applied in agricultural settings. Consumers, farmers, farmworkers, domesticated plants and animals, wildlife, and their habitats are exposed to weed killers.

Against the background of agriculture's current dependence on herbicides, biotechnology, agrichemical, and seed companies, as well as the U.S. Department of Agriculture and state agricultural institutions, are using genetic engineering to develop crops and trees resistant to herbicides. Widespread adoption of these crops and trees will lead to increased use of particular herbicides.

Biotechnology's Bitter Harvest examines the impact of agricultural biotechnology's first major product - crops genetically modified to tolerate chemical weed killers, or herbicides. Crops are being given genes that will enable them to tolerate or resist the toxic effects of herbicides. A major research focus of public and private research institutions, herbicide-tolerant crops involve most agricultural crops, including a number of food crops, in the United States.

First, the report examines the extent of current herbicide use and the research sponsored by corporations, federal and state governments on crops and trees that tolerate herbicides. Then, it briefly discusses the human health, environmental, social, and economic impacts of herbicides and herbicide-tolerant plants. Next, the report examines the promises against the realities of widespread use of herbicide-tolerant crops, exposing a variety of detrimental effects herbicide-tolerant crops and trees will have on farmers, consumers, and the environment. Finally, it outlines the promise of sustainable agriculture to provide alternative methods of weed control. Based on its analyses, the report makes recommendations to discourage the development and adoption of herbicide-tolerant crops and trees.

To those with high hopes for the environmental benefits from biotechnology, herbicide-tolerant crops are at best a distressing misstep, at worst a cynical marketing strategy. Both industry and the publicly supported agricultural research establishment must direct their considerable talent and resources toward sustainable alternatives for weed management and other pest controls. The risks of prolonging the chemical era of agriculture are far too clear for farmers, consumers, and the environment. Sustainable practices provide an alternative that will never be realized if public research funds are wasted on such misguided products as herbicide-tolerant crops.

'Threat to Sustainable Agriculture' offers a well-researched critique of current genetic engineering efforts to develop herbicide-tolerant trees and crop plants. Written by a consortium of 18 environmental, farm, consumer and religious groups, and the Texas Department of Agriculture, the study emphasizes that herbicide-tolerant crops may lead to even greater herbicide use, further threatening both natural resources and human health.

The author's note, "Perhaps the greatest problem of herbicide tolerance is that it diverts us from the paths that really could lead to reduced chemical dependency in agriculture. As farmers have known for years, and in some cases are learning anew, responsible tillage practices, crop rotations, and intercropping are viable methods of managing weeds."

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Plant protection

Review, developed countries, developing countries, book, agriculture, wild plants, chemical impacts, agricultural waste, fertilizer, environmental pollution, pesticides, human health

RICHARDSON, M.L.

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