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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.
View the document2. Biotechnology's bitter harvest: herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture.
View the document3. Chemistry, agriculture and the environment.
View the document4. Mise au point de techniques appropriées de lir qui seront utilisés par les petits agriculteurs traditionnels d'Afrique tropicale.(developing appropriate ipm technology for the traditional small-scale farmer in tropical Africa).
View the document5. Biological control in developing countries: towards its wider application in sustainable pest management.
View the document6. Transforming plants as a means of crop protection against insects.
View the document7. Utilization of va-mycorrhiza as a factor in integrated plant protection.
View the document8. Activity of four plant leaf extracts against three fungal pathogens of rice.
View the document9. A useful approach to the biocontrol of cassava pathogens.
View the document10. Evaluation of the biological activity of flax as a trap crop against orobanche parasitism of vicia faba.
View the document11. Insect pest management.
View the document12. Economic contributions of pest management to agricultural development.
View the document13. The effects of intercropping and mixed varieties of predators and parasitoids of cassava whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) in Colombia.
View the document14. Prospects for traditional and cultural practices in integrated pest management of some root crop diseases in rivers state, Nigeria.
View the document15. Studies on cowpea farming practices in nigeria, with emphasis on insect pest control.
View the document16. Effect of various fertilizers and rates on insect pest/pearl millet relationship in Senegal.
View the document17. Insect pests of intercrops and their potential to infest oil palm in an oil-palm-based agroforestry system in India.
View the document18. Using weather data to forecast insect pest outbreaks.
View the document19. Insect pest management and socio-economic circumstances of small-scale farmers for food crop production in western Kenya: a case study.
View the document20. Rodent communities associated with three traditional agroecosystems in the San Luis potosi plateau, Mexico.
View the document21. Grain storage losses in Zimbabwe.
View the document22. Controlling weeds without chemicals.
View the document23. Weed management in agroecosystems: ecological approaches.
View the document24. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses.
View the document25. Evaluation of efficient weed management systems in pigeonpea (cajanus cajan l.)
View the document26. Weed management in a low-input cropping system in the Peruvian Amazon region.
View the document27. Poblaciones, biomasa y banco de semillas de arvenses en cultivos de maiz zea mays l. Y frijol phaseolus vulgaris l. Efecto de m+todos de control y rotaciones. (Weed population, biomass, and seed bank in maize and bean crops. Effects of control methods and crop rotations).
View the document28. Effects of groundnut, cowpea and melon on weed control and yields of intercropped cassava and maize.
View the document29. Intercropping and weeding: effects on some natural enemies of African bollworm, heliothis armigera (hbn.) (lep., Noctuidae), in bean fields.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
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5. Biological control in developing countries: towards its wider application in sustainable pest management.

Med. Fac. Landb, Rijksuniv. Gent, 55 (2a), 1990, pp. 217-223

Biological control is the use of living natural enemies - parasites, predators, pathogens - as pest control agents. The most attractive biological control technique is the introduction and permanent establishment of exotic species for long term pest suppression (known as classical biological control) because once in place no further input is required. Manipulations of the crop environment to enhance the impact of pre-existing natural enemies, referred to as conservation of natural enemies, may also provide long term control. When long term biological control is not possible, periodic applications of natural enemies may be made to achieve short term control by timed releases of native or exotic natural enemies to control pests over a season, or natural enemies may be applied as biological pesticides for immediate reduction of pest numbers. Usually more or less host specific natural enemies are screened to ensure that non-target organisms of economic importance or of conservation value are not harmed. In this way undesirable side effects are avoided and biological control has a minimum impact on the environment.

Biological control can provide a sustainable and environmentally acceptable pest management, often at little or no direct cost to the farmer and so it has many advantages, especially for the resource poor farmer in developing countries who cannot afford costly imported chemical pesticides.

Biological control offers more or less target specific pest control, which may be indefinitely sustainable at little or no recurrent cost.

Therefore, it should be attractive, not only as a means of solving major pest problems of overriding importance but also as one of the central components of pest management in specific cropping systems. World-wide surveys indicate that the adoption of biological control as a pest control strategy varies greatly between regions, countries and crops.

Some reasons for this uneven uptake are discussed in this paper.

Unfortunately biological control research does not receive the level of institutional and financial support given by chemical industry to the development, promotion and marketing of pesticides. The production and distribution of high yielding varieties of major crops is well supported, especially by the International Agricultural Research Centres and by industry.

The different approaches to applying biotic agents in pest control are reviewed in relation to their appropriateness to the various agricultural production systems found in developing countries, e.g., plantations, cash crops, horticultural crops, subsistence farming. Some constraints to the wider application of biological controls are outlined; notably misconceptions over the mode of action of biological control agents and their safety, pressures to rely on chemical pesticides, lack of administrative support to facilitate implementation of biological controls and inadequate investment in research and development. Some current initiatives by various agencies to find ways of overcoming these constraints are discussed.

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Plant protection

Review, biotechnology, transgenic plants, insect pests, pesticides, crop yield, genetic engineering, inherent resistence

HILDER, V.A. and A.M.R. GATEHOUSE

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