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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
close this folderAbstracts on plant protection
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Designing integrated pest management for sustainable and productive futures.
View the document2. Biotechnology's bitter harvest: herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture.
View the document3. Chemistry, agriculture and the environment.
View the document4. Mise au point de techniques appropriées de lir qui seront utilisés par les petits agriculteurs traditionnels d'Afrique tropicale.(developing appropriate ipm technology for the traditional small-scale farmer in tropical Africa).
View the document5. Biological control in developing countries: towards its wider application in sustainable pest management.
View the document6. Transforming plants as a means of crop protection against insects.
View the document7. Utilization of va-mycorrhiza as a factor in integrated plant protection.
View the document8. Activity of four plant leaf extracts against three fungal pathogens of rice.
View the document9. A useful approach to the biocontrol of cassava pathogens.
View the document10. Evaluation of the biological activity of flax as a trap crop against orobanche parasitism of vicia faba.
View the document11. Insect pest management.
View the document12. Economic contributions of pest management to agricultural development.
View the document13. The effects of intercropping and mixed varieties of predators and parasitoids of cassava whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) in Colombia.
View the document14. Prospects for traditional and cultural practices in integrated pest management of some root crop diseases in rivers state, Nigeria.
View the document15. Studies on cowpea farming practices in nigeria, with emphasis on insect pest control.
View the document16. Effect of various fertilizers and rates on insect pest/pearl millet relationship in Senegal.
View the document17. Insect pests of intercrops and their potential to infest oil palm in an oil-palm-based agroforestry system in India.
View the document18. Using weather data to forecast insect pest outbreaks.
View the document19. Insect pest management and socio-economic circumstances of small-scale farmers for food crop production in western Kenya: a case study.
View the document20. Rodent communities associated with three traditional agroecosystems in the San Luis potosi plateau, Mexico.
View the document21. Grain storage losses in Zimbabwe.
View the document22. Controlling weeds without chemicals.
View the document23. Weed management in agroecosystems: ecological approaches.
View the document24. Manual on the prevention of post-harvest grain losses.
View the document25. Evaluation of efficient weed management systems in pigeonpea (cajanus cajan l.)
View the document26. Weed management in a low-input cropping system in the Peruvian Amazon region.
View the document27. Poblaciones, biomasa y banco de semillas de arvenses en cultivos de maiz zea mays l. Y frijol phaseolus vulgaris l. Efecto de m+todos de control y rotaciones. (Weed population, biomass, and seed bank in maize and bean crops. Effects of control methods and crop rotations).
View the document28. Effects of groundnut, cowpea and melon on weed control and yields of intercropped cassava and maize.
View the document29. Intercropping and weeding: effects on some natural enemies of African bollworm, heliothis armigera (hbn.) (lep., Noctuidae), in bean fields.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

6. Transforming plants as a means of crop protection against insects.

Outlook on Agriculture, 19, 3, 1990, pp. 170-183

In this paper the progress is discussed which is being made towards producing plants by introducing insect control genes into crops by plant genetic engineering.

Some 13% of the world's crops are lost directly to insect predations, with further losses attributable to plant diseases for which insects act as the transmission vectors.

It is estimated that in 1988 nearly 4 billion US dollars were spent on applying chemical insecticides to protect just three crops - cotton, maize and rice - from their insect pests. These crops account for approximately half the total worldwide insecticide usage.

More than 99.9% of the chemical applied, enters the environment in ways which have a number of undesirable consequences, such as the destruction of beneficial insects, promotion of secondary pests and contamination of food chains. No-one alive today is free from detectable levels of organochlorides derived from insecticides.

The use of crop varieties which are inherently resistant to, or at least tolerant of, insect pests would provide a solution to this problem. Such varieties have the advantages that protection is provided when and where required for maximal control of insect pests, and is confined within the plant, thereby restricting its effect to crop-eating insects. The production of such resistant lines has been a goal of many conventional plant breeding programs. Unfortunately there is often no source of inherent resistance in the germplasm which is available for breeding purposes in a particular crop, even using modern wide-crossing and embryo rescue techniques.

Plant genetic enginering could help to overcome this problem since, once a system for the stable transformation of a particular crop has been developed, genes may be introduced into the breeding lines from any source. Such sources can include unrelated plants, animals, microbes or even wholly synthetic genes. This opens up a virtually unlimited source of germplasm variability from which useful traits may be selected.

Transformation systems have now been developed for most of the major crop species and for many other, locally important ones.

With the transformation system available, the key question becomes that of where to obtain useful genes for transfer. Two logical sources of insect control genes have been exploited so far: insect pathogenic microorganisms and plants themselves.

These sources are discussed in this paper.

The authors conclude that every encouragement should be given to careful attempts to investigate the claims that the approach of transforming plants to insect pest control is:


- user-friendly - there are no application costs or sophisticated technology involved in the use of such material on the farm; genetically engineered seed would be handled in exactly the same way as unmodified seed;

- ecologically-friendly - replacing some of the current pesticide usage with protection which is intrinsically biodegradable, specific to targeted insects, and confined within the plant;

- consumer-friendly - the gene products which have been transferred so far have been derived from the edible parts of food crops.

1200 92 - 10/127

Plant protection

Latin America, Brazil, field trial, VA-mycorrhiza, integrated plant protection, rubber trees

FELDMANN, F. et al.

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