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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
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Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
close this folderAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Indigenous soil and water conservation in Africa.
View the document2. Sustainable uses for steep slopes.
View the document3. Land restoration and revegetation.
View the document4. Economic analysis of soil erosion effects in alley cropping, no-till, and bush fallow systems in southwestern Nigeria.
View the document5. Soil conservation and management in developing countries.
View the document6. Guidelines: land evaluation for rainfed agriculture.
View the document7. Small-grain equivalent of mixed vegetation for wind erosion control and prediction.
View the document8. A method for farmer-participatory research and technology transfer: upland soil conservation in the Philippines.
View the document9. African bean-based cropping systems conserve soil.
View the document10. Refining soil conservation strategies in the mountain environment: the climatic factor.
View the document11. Conservation tillage for sustainable crop production systems.
View the document12. Caring for the land of the usambaras - a guide to preserving the environment through agriculture, agroforestry and zero grazing.
View the document13. Vetiver grass (vetiveria zizanioides) - a method of vegetative soil and moisture conservation.
View the document14. Erosion in andean hillside farming.
View the document15. Conservation tillage systems.
View the document16. Soil erosion, water runoff and their control on steep slopes in Sumatra.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

10. Refining soil conservation strategies in the mountain environment: the climatic factor.

DESFIL Publication; prepared for USAID, USA; 1990, 36 pp. + appendices

The overall objective of this report is to establish simple procedures for the use of climate, soil, and slope data during the design phase of conservation projects with small farmers in the Latin American highlands. Use of these procedures can greatly facilitate the initial selection of soil conservation measures that might be employed.

The authors discuss briefly, but do not analyze, the role of socioeconomic and institutional factors, as they relate to the successful adoption of appropriate soil conservation measures. They set as their task in this report the development of a simple method for determining appropriate soil conservation technologies in areas of steep slopes. They are cognizant of constraints such as patterns of land tenure, social organization of labour, traditional crop preferences, existing traditional technologies, market patterns, and local perceptions of risk and costs versus benefits - to name a few of the more obvious socioeconomic variables - on the successful adoption of non-traditional technologies, no matter how appropriate from a strictly technical standpoint they may be.

The hill and mountain regions of Latin America represent the fragile land resource for innumerable families on small farms. A major threat to their survival is land degradation resulting from soil erosion. Soil conservation projects directed toward this problem have been implemented throughout the region with mixed results, and the design of such projects is the subject of this report.

Section 2.0 begins with a summary of contemporary soil erosion problems in Ecuador, followed by a brief introductory discussion of erosion and sedimentation process in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 provides a summary of the team's field and desk analyses conducted in Ecuador; the resultant decision tree, designed to assist the field manager in the preliminary selection of regionally appropriate erosion control techniques, is discussed in Section 5.0. Socioeconomic parameters of importance to a more effective use of the decision tree are discussed in Section 6.0, followed by a discussion of the study's major conclusions and recommendations in Section 7.0. Appendix 1 shows the average monthly water balance for 12 stations in the Ecuadorian highlands; Appendix 2 provides a method for approximating annual water balance by month; and Appendix 3 discusses a number of soil loss quantification techniques of potential use to ongoing and future projects. A model monitoring plan is also discussed. A brief description of contemporary soil conservation techniques is shown in Appendix 4.

To achieve site-specific project, implementation must take a learning approach. During the initial period, the project must learn what works.

This is a period of testing and validation to identify effective soil conservation interventions, effective institutional arrangements, and effective means to collaborate with farm families and communities. In the second phase learning should focus on efficiency, while in the later phases the project must learn to expand and achieve wider coverage. Many projects attempt wide coverage initially, and only by chance identify what works late in project life. Efficiency may never be achieved.

The study includes a decision tree which integrates rainfall, slope, and soil factors in the choice of conservation measures; a discussion of farmer practices and economic and social factors in soil conservation measures; and an appendix on techniques for monitoring soil loss as well as a discussion of monitoring programs.

Given the wide range of physical and social factors of influence to accelerated erosion processes, conservation projects should logically employ a site-specific approach. The development of additional procedures for the systematic consideration of socioeconomic, community, and institutional variables, in conjunction with the technical procedures described here, is highly recommended.

1263 92 - 13/61

Erosion and desertification control

Africa, Zimbabwe, project, land-use pattern, institutional framework, training, research approach, on-farm trials, GTZ

VOGEL, H.

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