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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
View the document14. Nature and society.
View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
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Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.

FAO Economic and Social Development Paper No. 84; FAO, Rome, Italy; ISBN 92-5-102859-1; 1989, 58 pp. + appendices

This paper analyzes the properties and the policy significance of the measures of protection currently used by economists in a variety of national and international situations.

The main objective of the paper is to define a set of operational rules to measure the extent and the consequences of government market interventions, with a view to provide guidance for the evaluation of structural adjustment policies involving movements to freer trade. This objective is pursued through a survey of the different measures and of the underlying theoretical constructions and a review of their implications for economic policy.

The paper is oganized as follows: the first section describes the problem area and the possible theoretical approaches and classifies the measures into the three categories of the "price gap", income gap" and "real income gap", according to whether they measure price, incomes or welfare differences due to protection. These three gap measures are reviewed in the second, the third and the fourth section.

Summarizing and concluding the following has been stated:


- Measures of protection have been devised with the two-fold objective of quantifying trade distortions through the measurement of its effects on several economic variables: prices, value added, exchange rates, producers and consumers welfare, government income. More recently general equilibrium models have attempted to measure effects on wages, employment and growth.

- All the measures were born conceptually within the single country context. That is, they measure the effects of single or multiple government interventions by comparing the level of a single variable
(e.g. domestic price of a particular commodity) after the intervention with the level that the same variable would have taken without the specific intervention.

- Measures of protection can also be classified in the two categories of "ex ante" and "ex post" measures, according to whether they refer to presumptive or first round effects, or to real comparisons with and without protection. The "ex ante" measures can be easily performed only for tariffs, taxes and subsidies, while the "ex post" ones, based on real price comparisons, can be used for all government interventions, including quantitative restrictions.

Measures of protection can be a valuable tool for policy making, provided that they are used with caution. Both ex ante and ex post measures should be used in the policy process of structural adjustment for different tasks: the ex ante measures to agree on the removal of tariff levels and other specifications, the ex post measures to evaluate priorities and set monitorable targets.

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Farming systems research and development

Review, bibliographies, Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia, women, development CTA

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