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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
View the document14. Nature and society.
View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.

In: FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 44, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1988, pp. 143-154

This article aims to examine the economic outlook and conditions of rural areas in Africa, with particular attention to the income/employment and attitudes of women. It explores those critical issues that deal with the continuing and long-term impact of unemployment and underemployment and poverty, as well as examining those forces that play a part in the development of the rural woman's image and status.

Women in Africa actively pursue economic endeavours in related farm-and non-farm activities to supplement the little they receive from farming.

Women's rural non-farm activities are generally aimed at income or employment generation and are visible all over the continent. Trading and marketing constitute two key areas of these economic pursuits.

Modern economic parameters have assigned women to inferior placements in the rural framework, primarily as a result of the process of modernization.

In addition to the obstacles of modernization, limited access to land and related resources; lack of control over their own labour; and lack of mobility because of family responsibilities and social and cultural restrictions have to be mentioned.

A set of recommendations for income-generating projects are mentioned:


- It is essential for women to change their attitudes and venture into more lucrative areas that are at present taboo.

- For example, the West African "market mammies" are famous for their economic control in the fishing industry.

- Capital or credit facilities must be created to help women with economic initiatives.

- Expanding income opportunities for skills/trade for women means expanding indigenous productive skill areas or popular skill attractions (tailoring, poultry-keeping, dairy production) through more systematic and organized marketing schemes. This is because markets do not expand fast enough and new markets must be sought.

Traditional skill areas will have to be therefore more vigorously enriched and organized (quality control, production schedule, product-symmetry-shape, size, colour) to serve as real income-generating projects.

- Women require and should obtain more training in terms of mental change, and also to meet the required managerial and technical expectations of the programme (bookkeeping, clerical skills).

Grass-roots training should be given priority.

1059 92 - 2/143

Farming systems research and development

Case study, Asia, Israel, traditional agriculture, technology transfer, development approach, social structure, infrastructure, agricultural technology, agronomy, economy, crop budget, tomato, cucumber, melon
RYMON, D. and U. OR

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