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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
View the document14. Nature and society.
View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).

J. of Sustainable Agriculture, 2, (1), 1991, pp. 103-118

This paper adopts the approach to increase agricultural production in order to supply growing food requirements.

Over the past 20 years a rapid adoption process of agricultural technology has taken place in the Jiftlik Valley, west of the Jordan

River in Israel.

This case study covers close to two decades of development from the end of the 1960s until the mid-1980s. During that relatively short period the traditional agriculture of the region underwent a dramatic change as a direct result of the introduction of a new agricultural technology based on drip irrigation. Increased yields, and the corresponding increase in farmers' incomes have resulted in capital accumulation and further development; in this sense the technology has played a key role in upgrading the lifestyle of the local population.

Vegetable production has increased more than tenfold and net income of most of the farmers has increased by an even greater factor, thanks to the improved quality of the produce. This dramatic change can be attributed to the innovativeness and full participation of the farmers.

At the start of the technology transfer process the study population was characterized by two socio-economic features: a traditional but stable social structure, and the existence of a continuous market demand for the high-value crops it produced.

Against this background the main elements contributing to the development were:


- suitable agricultural technology;

- the physical support system, e.g., credit and infrastructure;

- a balance of privately and publicly supplied extension services; and

- backing in the form of appropriate intervention by the government.

The overall objective was to replace the traditional technology by an appropriate modern one, as a package of techniques. Accordingly, the following components were introduced:


- Earth-built water ponds to enable provision of the water supply according to crop needs, independently of the traditional allocation based on water rights.

- Drip irrigation system including all of its peripheral components.

- Seeds (usually hybrid varieties) and seedlings.

- Plastic sheeting (used for mulching, low tunnels, etc.).

- Chemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, etc.).

The Valley population has enjoyed a stable social structure for decades.

The traditional collaboration between landlord and farmers has not been altered during the period of adoption of the new technology.

The main lesson to be learned is that accelerating technology transfer to a farming community - as opposed to a step-by-step approach - is a viable option; this without the prior development of a complete infrastructure comprising all of the required "software" and "hardware".

The ATTA approach (Advanced Technologies in Traditional Agriculture) may therefore offer an economically and socially acceptable way to overcome shortages of relatively high-value food crops in the growing metropolitan centers of developing countries.

A stable social structure is an important factor. In assessing the sociocultural elements that may affect the introduction of an advanced technology.

Farmers' participation and organization are extremely important for successful, and rapid technology transfer. At the outset, participation requires initiative on the part of the farmers, and their involvement will increase as their confidence builds up.

1060 92 - 2/144

Farming systems research and development

Review, book, projects, people, participation, experience, key elements, development, ILO

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