Change to Ukrainian interface versionChange to English interface versionChange to Russian interface versionHome pageClear last query resultsHelp page
Search for specific termsBrowse by subject categoryBrowse alphabetical list of titlesBrowse by organizationBrowse special topic issues

close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
View the document14. Nature and society.
View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.

Gatekeeper Series No. 25; IIED, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, UK, 1991, 13 p.

The failure of the traditional trickle-down methods of development is now well documented. Though better recognized in Third World countries, it is also central to the steady erosion of livelihoods in rural, resource-poor regions of the industrialized countries. Perhaps nowhere is it more evident than in rural Appalachian communities of the United States of America.

The Appalachian region refers to the mountainous region in the middle eastern part of the United States, stretching from as far north as western New York state, and running through parts of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia down to Alabama and Missisippi.

Historically, the region has contained some of the poorest socio-economic conditions of any region in the country. It is one of the least developed in the United States in factors including agriculture, unemployment, housing, urbanization, poverty, economic diversity, etc.

The economic crisis in the egion poses a crisis for traditional economic development policy. Historically, the development model for the region has been based on creating a favourable 'business climate', which in turn could be used to lure industry into the region. In the name of maintaining the business climate, workers received low-wages, and communities provided tax and other concessions to industry. Based upon a traditional understanding of 'trickle down' economics, the assumption was that what was good for business was good for communities and local livelihoods. To some extent, within its own definitions of success, the 'business climates' model of development worked. Thousands of industrial plants came to the region. The overall standard of living grew.

A number of methods were used which were similar to those employed in participatory research and extension approaches such as Rapid Rural Appraisal, Rapid Assessment Procedures, and Farmer Participatory Research. A central point was the emphasis upon the development of peoples' knowledge, and peoples' research and analysis as an important part of the process of beginning to reverse the pattern of dependence upon external economic forces. These methods include those described below:


- Oral histories
- Community surveys
- Community mapping and drawings
- Decision-makers interviews
- Videos and readings
- Brainstorming and feasibility studies
- Cultural components

The definition of successful development expands to include criterion broader than jobs and income, but also community participation, democratic participation and dignity. Community development - economic, cultural and social - flowers when people value themselves and their neighbours, and begin to work together in common endeavours.

As important as these may be, these case studies and the experience suggest a broader view, especially if one is interested in participatory development. In the latter approach, the development of 'infrastructure' includes human development, an education for creativity, regaining and understanding popular knowledge and history, democratic decision-making, and consciousness of religous and political symbols. With this investment, people can become better equipped to rebuild their own communities and economies.

1065 92 - 2/149

Farming systems research and development

Review, book, rural development, participatory methods, development practice, community development, cultural impact, grassroot movements, future directions

to previous section to next section

[Ukrainian]  [English]  [Russian]