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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
close this folderAbstracts on farming systems research and development
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Using indigenous knowledge in agricultural development.
View the document2. On-farm sustainable agriculture research: lessons from the past, directions for the future.
View the document3. A manual for culturally-adapted market research (cmr) in the development process.
View the document4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.
View the document5. The economics of sustainable agriculture: adding a downstream perspective.
View the document6. Monitoring and evaluation in the management of agricultural research.
View the document7. Sustainable institutions for african agricultural development.
View the document8. Human resource management for national agricultural research: lessons from ISNAR's experience.
View the document9. A conceptual framework for studying the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries.
View the document10. Linkages between on-farm research and extension in nine countries.
View the document11. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: a synthesis of experiences from nine national agricultural research systems.
View the document12. Organization and management of field activities in on-farm research: A review of experience in nine countries.
View the document13. Social and human dimensions of agricultural development in africa in the perspective of the year 2000 (dimensions sociales et humaines du developpement agricole de l'Afrique dans la perspective de l'an 2000. ).
View the document14. Nature and society.
View the document15. Development of fragile lands: theory and practice.
View the document16. Agricultural research networks as development tools: views of a network coordinator.
View the document17. Measures of protection: methodology, economic interpretation and policy relevance.
View the document18. Women in development in southern africa; an annotated bibliography.
View the document19. Women in development: a resource guide for organization and action.
View the document20. Income generation and african rural women: choice or mere neglect.
View the document21. Accelerating technology transfer by means of atta (advanced technologies in traditional agriculture).
View the document22. Projects with people: the practice of participation in rural development.
View the document23. Technological innovations in latin american agriculture.
View the document24. Agricultural compendium - for rural development in the tropics and subtropics.
View the document25. Guidelines for designing development projects to benefit the rural poor.
View the document26. Participatory education and grassroots development: the case of rural appalachia.
View the document27. Approaches that work in rural development: emerging trends, participatory methods and local initiatives.
View the document28. Participatory rapid rural appraisal in wollo: peasant association planning for natural resource management.
View the document29. Farmers' knowledge of agricultural practices: a sri lankan experience.
View the document30. The sustainability of the impact of the integrated rural development programme (irdp) zambia/nw-province.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on cropping system
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

4. Environmentally compatible agricultural development. Resource, food and income security as a task for development and structural policy.

Publ. of German Development Institute (GDI); Berlin; 1992, 56 p. + notes

The disastrous combination of rapid population growth, under development and dwindling resources on the one hand and advancing industrialization and climatic change due to pollutants on the other calls for a change of attitude towards nature.

The value attached to nature and the organization of economic activities that use its dwindling resources need to be reconsidered. Given the multicausal linkages, this needs to be done at all levels of the economy and in almost all spheres of life in both industrialized and developing countries.

The application of purely economistic and, therefore, reductionist models to land development in the tropics and subtropics with their particularly fragile ecosystems, has had devastating effects on the natural balance, causing erosion, soil salination, soil and landscape degradation, disastrous droughts or flooding. The economic, social and demographic consequences of such anthropogenic processes of land destruction and of the climatogenic processes closely associated with them are declining yield capacities, increasing poverty and the uprooting of sections of the population, as more and more people flee the effects of environmental destruction to seek food and a living elsewhere.

Production and consumption should therefore increasingly form part of substance and energy cycles which preserve resources and that agriculture should again develop more as a form of site-specific production based on regional comparative economic-ecological cost advantages.

Agricultural development, whether in the South, where its destructive impact on the land tends to be determined by the system, or in the agricultural economies of the North, whose adverse effects on the environment tend to be compulsive, is causing rising environmental costs. In the former case, these largely consist of on-farm costs in the shape of losses of yield and output due to sheet erosion, soil salination, soil degradation or nutrient leaching; in the latter case, they consist largely of "external costs" in the shape of surface and ground water pollution, land clearance, the loss of species or the contamination of food products with chemical residues. In the debate on global warming the agricultural economies of both North and South are, moreover, accused of increasing emissions of carbon dioxide and methane due to mechanization, large-scale livestock farming and the growing of lowland rice.

If there is to be an economic-ecological and innovative-organizational move towards the progressive application of ecological standards in agriculture and forestry, a number of basic conditions will need to be met at national and international level. These conditions are outlined in this paper.

Resource stabilization and food and income security are unlikely to be achieved with individual promotional instruments, but rather as a complementary task of measures taken under price, innovation, structural and trade policies. Agricultural development policies that are socially, economically and ecologically balanced may therefore emerge from the interplay among:

 

- national reforms of agricultural structures and prices based on economic-ecological principles,
- international commitments to internalize environmental costs in agriculture and
- a local commitment by each producer to use resources in a way that is compatible with the environment.

Agricultural development policies compatible with nature will therefore be able to prove themselves in practice only in the long term, in keeping with the general demand for globally responsible thinking and conception and locally responsible action to the benefit of the environment and international society.

Author's summary, shortened.

1043 92 - 2/127

Farming systems research and development

Review, USA, sustainable agriculture, downstream perspective, soil erosion control, property rights
HITZHUSEN, F.J.

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