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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
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View the document1. Intensive sustainable livestock production: an alternative to tropical deforestation.
View the document2. Utilization of the african giant land snail in the humid area of nigeria.
View the document3. Important issues of small-holder livestock sector worldwide.
View the document4. Small ruminant production in developing countries.
View the document5. Microlivestock little-known small animals with a promising economic future.
View the document6. Assisting African livestock keepers.
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View the document8. Economic constraints on sheep and goat production in developing countries.
View the document9. Sheep. Pigs.
View the document10. Strategies to increase sheep production in East Africa.
View the document11. Alternatives to imported compound feeds for growing pigs in solomon islands.
View the document12. Economic analysis of on-farm dairy animal research and its relevance to development.
View the document13. Grazing management: science into practice.
View the document14. Fish-farming in sub-Saharan Africa: case studies in the francophone countries - proposals for future action.
View the document15. Research and education for the development of integrated crop-livestock-fish farming systems in the tropics.
View the document16. Goats/fish integrated farming in the philippines.
View the document17. The sustainability of aquaculture as a farm enterprise in Rwanda.
View the document18. Double-cropping malaysian prawns, macrobrachium rosenbergii, and red swamp crawfish, procambarus clarkii.
View the document19. Rice/fish farming in Malaysia: a resource optimization
View the document20. Biotechnology in fishfarms: integrated farming or transgenic fish?
View the document21. Agricultural engineering in the development: tillage for crop production in areas of low rainfall.
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16. Goats/fish integrated farming in the philippines.

AMBIO, 19, 8, 1990, pp. 408-410

This paper presents preliminary findings from the two 120-day fish-culture periods in a 240-day goat rearing cycle in the Philippines.

There is a government program for an effective approach to improving the quality of life of the people, not only in the urban communities but also in the rural areas through the livelihood project. The project is a centerpiece program and seeks to boost livelihood opportunities nationwide. Goat raising has become one of the priorities of the program. The small size of goats, their early maturation, inquisitive feeding habits and low capital investment must be exploited to spur development of intensive goat production including the utilization of the manure in fish culture.

The present project was initiated to determine the maximum rate of goat-manure loading and stocking density of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticum) per unit area of fishpond and design a goat/fish integrated farming system that could give the highest economic return, with manure as the only added nutrient source.

This study was conducted in twelve 200 m2 fishponds. The goat houses had a floor area of 0.75 m x 1.5 m per goat and were built partially overhanging the surface of the pond.

An integrated farming system offers several potential advantages, i.e. increased productivity, greater income, improved cash flow, fuller employment, a better diet for the farmer and his family and the spread of both biological and economic risks, since two subsystems are involved as opposed to one in a single commodity farming system. This strategy, however, requires knowledge and management skills.

The major constraint for small-scale farmers involved in aquaculture is the shortage and high cost of pond fertilizer and commercial feeds for the fish.

In the Ilocos Region, Philippines, intensive goat raising is possible due to the high demand for chevron (goat meat) which is the main delicacy of the Ilocanos. Intensification is greatly limited by the problem of waste disposal. Many Ilocanos are engaged in small-scale aquaculture, but operations are hindered by the shortage and high cost of commercial feeds and fertilizer for their fish ponds. This goat/fish production trial described employ 0, 200, and 300 goats with fish-stocking densities of 10,000 and 20,000 of Nile tilapia

(Oreochromis niloticus) per ha. The highest individual fish weight (78.05 g), in a 120-day fish-culture period, was recorded for the combination of 300 goats and 10,000 O. niloticus per ha, whereas the lowest gain (45.95 g) was obtained at the stocking density of 20,000 O. niloticus per ha without goat manure. The highest total fish yield of 1170 kg x ha 1 was recorded for a combination of 20,000 O. niloticus and 300 goats per ha. Currently, the goat manure loading per ha is increasing to 400, 500, and 600 goats.

Concluding in the two trials conducted, the growth of tilapia increased with the rate of goat manure loading. This indicates that the fish feed produced in the ponds with goat manure is being efficiency utilized by the fish biomass. The analysis shows that the highest net return of Philippine dollars 129872 was obtained from the 300 to 20,000 combination followed by the 300 to 10,000 per hectare (PD 108952.50). If the present trend in some local markets prevails where large fish fetch significantly higher prices than small-size fish, the 300 goat to 10,000 fish per hectare combination would be more profitable.

Raising goats and developing a family-level fishpond for small-scale use could help to decrease protein malnutrition.

The integration of goat with tilapia production is a means of establishing a sustainable farming system aimed at maximizing productivity and minimizing operational costs. There is great potential for this production as the demand for milk and meat is high.

1085 92 - 3/135

Integrated systems

Africa, Rwanda, aquaculture, project, techniques, extension, organization, farm structure, USAID

MOLNAR, J.J.

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