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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
close this folderAbstracts on cropping system
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Green manure crops in irrigated and rainfed lowland rice-based cropping systems in south Asia.
View the document2. Comparative evaluation of some inter-cropping systems in the humid tropics of southern nigeria.
View the document3. Intercropping improves land-use efficiency.
View the document4. A new maize modernizes savanna farming.
View the document5. Analysis of the environmental component of genotype x environment interaction in crop adaptation evaluation.
View the document6. Climatic analyses and cropping systems in the semiarid tropics.
View the document7. Field crop production in tropical Africa.
View the document8. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics.
View the document9. Software system for plant growth prediction.
View the document10. Flood-tolerant crops for low-input sustainable agriculture in the everglades agricultural area.
View the document11. The physiology of tropical production.
View the document12. Achieving sustainability in cropping systems: the labour requirements of a mulch rotation system in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
View the document13. Grain yield responses in rice to eight tropical green manures.
View the document14. Utilization efficiency of applied nitrogen as related to yield advantage in maize/mungbean intercropping.
View the document15. Effects of two underseed species, medicago polymorpha l. And scorpiurus muricatus l.,on the yield of main crop (durum wheat) and subsequent crop (teff) under humid moisture regimes in Ethiopia.
View the document16. Characterization and environment-management relationships in beans and sorghum intercropped with maize in honduras. (caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras.)
View the document17. Production potential of pigeonpea/pearl millet intercropping system in rainfed diara (floodprone) areas of eastern uttar pradesh, India.
View the document18. Effect of mixed cropping lentil with barley at different seeding rates.
View the document19. Yield performance and complementarity in mixtures of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) And pea (pisum sativum l.).
View the document20. Economic feasibility of green manure in rice-based cropping systems.
View the document21. Effect of nitrogen on pigeonpea (cajanus cajan) and rice (oryza sativa) intercropping system.
View the document22. Smallholder cotton cropping practices in Togo.
View the document23. Effect of row arrangement on yield and yield advantages in sorghum/finger millet intercrops.
View the document24. Yield, economics and nutrient balance in cropping systems based on rice (oriza sativa).
View the document25. Mechanisms for overyielding in a sunflower/mustard intercrop.
View the document26. Agronomic modification of competition between cassava and pigeonpea in intercropping.
View the document27. Production and economic evaluation of white guinea yam (dioscorea rotundata) minisetts under ridge and bed production systems in a tropical guinea savanna location, Nigeria.
View the document28. Evaluation of intercropping cassava/corn/beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) In northeast Brazil.
View the document29. Intercropping of sweet potato and legumes.
View the document30. Cassava in shifting cultivation. - a system approach to agricultural technology development in Africa.-
View the document31. Economic returns from yam/maize intercrops with various stake densities in a high-rainfall area.
View the document32. Performance of three centrosema spp. And pueraria phaseoloides in grazed associations with andropogon gayanus in the eastern plains of Colombia.
View the document33. Barley, lentil, and flax yield under different intercropping systems.
View the document34. Biological potential and economic feasibility of intercropping oilseeds and pulses with safflower (carthamus tinctorius) in drylands.
View the document35. Screening of different tropical legumes in monoculture and in association with cassava for adaption to acid infertile and high al-content soil.
View the document36. Intercropping studies in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.).
View the document37. Intercropping of rainfed groundnut (arachis hypogaea) with annual oilseed crops under different planting patterns.
View the document38. Resource use and plant interactions in a rice-mungbean intercrop.
View the document39. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part I
View the document40. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part II
View the document41. A post-green revolution strategy for the improvement of small farmer-grown common beans.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands

12. Achieving sustainability in cropping systems: the labour requirements of a mulch rotation system in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 68, 3, 1991, pp. 249-254

The present paper demonstrates that the Mulch Rotation System has another major advantage over more traditional systems since its labour requirements more closely match labour availability on the settlement units. It thus demonstrates the importance of including a systematic assessment of labour requirements and labour availability in the field trials of any new farming system.

In order to overcome the considerable problems of replacing rainforest with sustainable agricultural systems, IITA has developed a 'Living Mulch' system. The results have shown that in contrast to a conventional till system, in which yields decline rapidly after six seasons, sustainable yields of food crops can be achieved under a live mulch which tends to take over most of the functions of the natural vegetation.

A somewhat different approach described as a 'Mulch Rotation" System has attracted considerable interest in Indonesia.

The system starts with a one-year fallow when a legume cover crop - Pueraria javanica Benth. - is grown on the land cleared of rain forest.

After one year the cover crop is cut by hand and food crops are sown into the decomposing mulch. This continues for three seasons (one year) and the cover crop is again planted (as cuttings) into the last food crop - upland rice - after which the land is left under the legume cover crop fallow for a further year.

In addition to plant nutrients, however, the sustainability of a farming system depends on the availability of a whole range of other inputs.

Labour is a major constraint. However, both the Living Mulch and the Mulch Rotation Systems use no-till methods; and because the mulch, whether living or dead, tends to suppress weed growth, two of the most labour-intensive operations, soil tillage and weeding, are markedly reduced.

This paper shows how labour profile techniques can be used to evaluate this aspect of the Mulch Rotation System.

The introduction of the Mulch Rotation System can reduce the labour peaks dramatically. All the data for this system show a profile with less severe peaks and some extended troughs giving time for social activities and leisure. It should be noted that the Mulch Rotation System does include a one-year fallow. This implies the need for some additional land though the actual amount required depends on the yield improvement of food crops grown after a legume cover crop. Trials' work to date suggests that this yield improvement may be substantial but further work needs to be done to establish whether the introduction of the Mulch Rotation System would in fact need to be accompanied by a change in the standard size of settlement farm (from 2 to,say 2.5 ha).

Labour requirement data of the type used in this study must be validated under different climatic and soil conditions and further data gathered on other food crops. On the labour supply side, more reliable information is needed on the relative contribution of different family members in order to include appropriate weighting factors in the analysis.

1102 92 - 4/145

Cropping systems

Asia, Philippines, IRRI, green manure, legumes, biomass, nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen substitution, rice yield, residual effects

MEELU, O.P. et al.

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