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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Green manure crops in irrigated and rainfed lowland rice-based cropping systems in south Asia.
View the document2. Comparative evaluation of some inter-cropping systems in the humid tropics of southern nigeria.
View the document3. Intercropping improves land-use efficiency.
View the document4. A new maize modernizes savanna farming.
View the document5. Analysis of the environmental component of genotype x environment interaction in crop adaptation evaluation.
View the document6. Climatic analyses and cropping systems in the semiarid tropics.
View the document7. Field crop production in tropical Africa.
View the document8. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics.
View the document9. Software system for plant growth prediction.
View the document10. Flood-tolerant crops for low-input sustainable agriculture in the everglades agricultural area.
View the document11. The physiology of tropical production.
View the document12. Achieving sustainability in cropping systems: the labour requirements of a mulch rotation system in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
View the document13. Grain yield responses in rice to eight tropical green manures.
View the document14. Utilization efficiency of applied nitrogen as related to yield advantage in maize/mungbean intercropping.
View the document15. Effects of two underseed species, medicago polymorpha l. And scorpiurus muricatus l.,on the yield of main crop (durum wheat) and subsequent crop (teff) under humid moisture regimes in Ethiopia.
View the document16. Characterization and environment-management relationships in beans and sorghum intercropped with maize in honduras. (caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras.)
View the document17. Production potential of pigeonpea/pearl millet intercropping system in rainfed diara (floodprone) areas of eastern uttar pradesh, India.
View the document18. Effect of mixed cropping lentil with barley at different seeding rates.
View the document19. Yield performance and complementarity in mixtures of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) And pea (pisum sativum l.).
View the document20. Economic feasibility of green manure in rice-based cropping systems.
View the document21. Effect of nitrogen on pigeonpea (cajanus cajan) and rice (oryza sativa) intercropping system.
View the document22. Smallholder cotton cropping practices in Togo.
View the document23. Effect of row arrangement on yield and yield advantages in sorghum/finger millet intercrops.
View the document24. Yield, economics and nutrient balance in cropping systems based on rice (oriza sativa).
View the document25. Mechanisms for overyielding in a sunflower/mustard intercrop.
View the document26. Agronomic modification of competition between cassava and pigeonpea in intercropping.
View the document27. Production and economic evaluation of white guinea yam (dioscorea rotundata) minisetts under ridge and bed production systems in a tropical guinea savanna location, Nigeria.
View the document28. Evaluation of intercropping cassava/corn/beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) In northeast Brazil.
View the document29. Intercropping of sweet potato and legumes.
View the document30. Cassava in shifting cultivation. - a system approach to agricultural technology development in Africa.-
View the document31. Economic returns from yam/maize intercrops with various stake densities in a high-rainfall area.
View the document32. Performance of three centrosema spp. And pueraria phaseoloides in grazed associations with andropogon gayanus in the eastern plains of Colombia.
View the document33. Barley, lentil, and flax yield under different intercropping systems.
View the document34. Biological potential and economic feasibility of intercropping oilseeds and pulses with safflower (carthamus tinctorius) in drylands.
View the document35. Screening of different tropical legumes in monoculture and in association with cassava for adaption to acid infertile and high al-content soil.
View the document36. Intercropping studies in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.).
View the document37. Intercropping of rainfed groundnut (arachis hypogaea) with annual oilseed crops under different planting patterns.
View the document38. Resource use and plant interactions in a rice-mungbean intercrop.
View the document39. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part I
View the document40. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part II
View the document41. A post-green revolution strategy for the improvement of small farmer-grown common beans.
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22. Smallholder cotton cropping practices in Togo.

Coton Fibres Trop., 46, 1991, pp. 285-290

The work described here was undertaken over the period 1980-1990 in five villages in Togo and provided an understanding of the ways cotton growing has developed: smallholder responses to recommendations and the main obstacles to increase cotton yields. The analysis of production systems was completed by experiments in the smallholder sector, destined to test innovations developed by research or to expand on the agricultural survey.

The cotton development operation in Togo was one of the most spectacular in West Africa in the 1980s.

Many smallholders in Togo have only recently started to grow cotton, and are small-scale producers, with an average area of 0.5 ha of plantings each.

The low cotton productivity levels observed are partly explained by the use of lower quantities of inputs than recommended.

Despite the low productivity observed, cotton is still an attractive crop, by virtue of the income it provides and the fact that it can be used to fund inputs for food crops.

By linking the behaviour of cotton smallholders with the various constraints mentioned above, it is possible to characterize various smallholder strategies. Four main types of situation are described in this paper.

The main causes of these low yield levels are essentially linked to the logic behind smallholder cropping practices, which consists in deliberately growing cotton extensively so as to reduce the risk of failure.

Concluding, it can be said that extension activities should be based on priority topics, taking acount of technical constraints encountered in the field. It would be beneficial if detailed technical responses could be drawn up depending on the region and the existing production system, to ensure more effective valorization of the inputs purchased by the smallholder. A considerable effort should be made to pass on messages to farmers, since the main obstacle to intensification is not so much developing new techniques as encouraging smallholders to adopt existing ones.

For its part, agricultural research should take account of the difficulties encountered by smallholders in applying recommended techniques. Hence agronomists should be able to propose techniques more adapted to conditions in the rural environment, and it is essential to redefine research topics with a view to minimizing the technical constraints facing smallholders in Togo.

The final aim is to eventually produce specific recommendations, where the supervisor would move from his current role to that of advisor. It has to be said that the current state of cotton growing in Togo (numerous small-scale producers and low yields) makes this a difficult target.

In addition, cotton development cannot be dissociated from other agricultural or livestock activities. It would be no good concentrating on cotton in view of the fact that food crops are often the smallholder's priority and govern his behaviour with respect to cotton.

Cotton intensification should therefore be looked at in overall terms, i.e.in terms of integrated development, taking account of all the constraints encountered by smallholders in Togo.

1112 92 - 4/155

Cropping systems

Africa, Uganda, study, highlands, field trials, intercropping, sorghum, finger millet, row arrangements, yield advantage

SSEKABEMBE, C.K.

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