24. Yield, economics and nutrient balance in cropping systems based on rice (oriza sativa).
Indian J. of Agricult. Sciences, 61, (12),1991, pp. 872-876
An experiment was conducted to find out the production potential, economical feasibility and nutrient removal of different rice-based cropping systems, including sugarcane as the component crop.
The six cropping systems tested were viz.-wheat-fallow; S2, rice-maize (Zea mays L.)-maize + cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] fodder (1:1); S3, rice-toria [Brassica rapa (L.) Thell. emend. Metzger var napus L.; syn B. napus L. var napus L. sensu stricto; B. campestris L. var toria Duth. & Full.]-wheat-dhaincha [Sesbania cannabina (Retz.)
Pers.] green-manure; S4 rice-potato + Indian mustard [Brassica juncea(L.) Czernj. & Cosson] 3:1 - blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.); S5, rice-wheat + Indian mustard (9:1)-greengram; S6, rice-wheat + sugarcane 4:1-ratoon-wheat (3-year rotation). Randomized block design was followed with 4 replications.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) - potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.)-greengram (Phaseolus radiatus L.) system is the most remunerative among the tested sequences in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is taken as a popular cash crop owing to its economical and ecological security.
Rice-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) + Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson]-greengram (Phaseolus radiatus L.) proved the most remunerative system with a net profit of Rs 12 178/ha/year and 1.07 cost : benefit ratio, whereas rice-wheat-fallow sequence showed the highest cost: benefit ratio. The highest cost of cultivation (Rs 17 337/ha/year) was incurred in rice-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) + Indian mustard-blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.) cropping system. This system also gave the highest employment opportunity and the highest rice-grain equivalent. The maximum removal of N, P and K was found in rice-maize (Zea mays L.)-maize + cowpea fodder [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] sequence. Positive apparent balance of N and P, and negative apparent balance of K was noticed in all the cropping systems except rice-maize-maize + cowpea (fodder), in which negative balance of N was found.
It was concluded that rice-wheat + Indian mustard-greengram cropping system gave high production and net returns, without much loss of fertility. An other alternative system, more productive and remunerative than the traditional rice-wheat system, is rice-potato + Indian mustard-blackgram. The sequence involving maize and rice both should be avoided in less-fertile soils.
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USA, field trials, intercropping, sunflower, mustard, yield performance, nitrogen, land equivalent ratio, water use
PUTNAM, O.H. and D.L. ALLAN
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