34. Biological potential and economic feasibility of intercropping oilseeds and pulses with safflower (carthamus tinctorius) in drylands.
Indian J. of Agric. Sciences, 61, (12), 1991, pp. 893-897
An experiment was conducted to explore the feasibility of growing 3 other oilseeds as well as a pulse crop in association with safflower at different row spacings.
The experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 1985-88. The soil was clay-loam with 25.5% clay, having low water-holding capacity.
The treatment of 3 row spacings (40, 50 and 60 cm) of sole 'A 300' safflower and 4 pure crops.
These were intercropped with safflower at 40, 50 and 60 cm row spacings, comprising 19 treatments. These were put in randomized block design, replicated thrice.
The low water-holding capacity and soil fertility along with low irrigation potential have compelled selection of a crop that could be suitable for growing under adverse situations in drylands. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and some other oilseed and pulse crops, which are more drought resistant and have the capacity to grow well even under low soil-fertility conditions can be the ideal ones for a sustainable cropping system under dryland conditions. For increasing the production of oilseeds and pulses, intercropping of these crops may be a viable agronomic practice to take greater production from a unit of land during a cropping period.
In this study it was shown that although significant differences were noticed in yields under all the systems, sole chickpea gave the maximum grain yield (960 kg/ha), which was statistically equal to that of chickpea sown between 60 cm (900 kg/ha) and 50 cm (890 kg/ha) row spacings of safflower. The intercropping of linseed between 40 cm (860 kg/ha) and 50 cm (790 kg/ha) row spacings was also found statistically similar. It shows that narrow spacing of safflower is better for linseed and wide spacing for chickpea.
The individual yields of safflower were not significantly affected under the 2 narrow spacings (40 and 50 cm) with linseed and under all the spacings with chickpea, which were further evident from the partial land-equivalent ratio of safflower (0.66-0.81) obtained under these combinations.
The partial land equivalent ratio of intercrops, particularly of rapeseed (0.64-0.75), indicated their superiority in different associations with safflower. The overall land-equivalent ratio was the highest (1.34) under the association of linseed intercropped with 40 cm row spacing of safflower.
The relative crowding coefficient of safflower in associations with linseed and chickpea (KSi > 1) also indicated an advantage derived from safflower under these associations.
The sole crop of chickpea gave significantly higher net return than the other cropping systems. Intercropping of safflower with almost all the intercrops gave significantly better net return than sole safflower.
Intercropping of linseed between 40 and 50 cm row spacings and that of chickpea between 50 and 60 cm row spacings gave statistically equal net returns. The net return derived from investment per unit input further revealed the superiority of sole chickpea to the rest of the systems, which gave maximum net return/Reinvestment.
Pure chickpea gave very high net return (30.8%) compared with pure safflower. The net returns from intercroppings were negative compared with sole crops of linseed, rapeseed and chickpea.
The maximum monetary advantage was recorded in association of linseed sown between 50 cm and chickpea sown between 60 cm row spacing of safflower.
It was concluded that safflower may be intercropped with linseed at a narrow spacing (40 cm) and chickpea may also be intercropped with safflower at wider spacing (50 or 60 cm) to get greater advantage than sole safflower but not compared with sole chickpea and linseed.
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Latin America, Colombia, CIAT, legumes, sole cropping, intercropping, cassava, marginal soils
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