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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
close this folderAbstracts on cropping system
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Green manure crops in irrigated and rainfed lowland rice-based cropping systems in south Asia.
View the document2. Comparative evaluation of some inter-cropping systems in the humid tropics of southern nigeria.
View the document3. Intercropping improves land-use efficiency.
View the document4. A new maize modernizes savanna farming.
View the document5. Analysis of the environmental component of genotype x environment interaction in crop adaptation evaluation.
View the document6. Climatic analyses and cropping systems in the semiarid tropics.
View the document7. Field crop production in tropical Africa.
View the document8. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics.
View the document9. Software system for plant growth prediction.
View the document10. Flood-tolerant crops for low-input sustainable agriculture in the everglades agricultural area.
View the document11. The physiology of tropical production.
View the document12. Achieving sustainability in cropping systems: the labour requirements of a mulch rotation system in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
View the document13. Grain yield responses in rice to eight tropical green manures.
View the document14. Utilization efficiency of applied nitrogen as related to yield advantage in maize/mungbean intercropping.
View the document15. Effects of two underseed species, medicago polymorpha l. And scorpiurus muricatus l.,on the yield of main crop (durum wheat) and subsequent crop (teff) under humid moisture regimes in Ethiopia.
View the document16. Characterization and environment-management relationships in beans and sorghum intercropped with maize in honduras. (caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras.)
View the document17. Production potential of pigeonpea/pearl millet intercropping system in rainfed diara (floodprone) areas of eastern uttar pradesh, India.
View the document18. Effect of mixed cropping lentil with barley at different seeding rates.
View the document19. Yield performance and complementarity in mixtures of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) And pea (pisum sativum l.).
View the document20. Economic feasibility of green manure in rice-based cropping systems.
View the document21. Effect of nitrogen on pigeonpea (cajanus cajan) and rice (oryza sativa) intercropping system.
View the document22. Smallholder cotton cropping practices in Togo.
View the document23. Effect of row arrangement on yield and yield advantages in sorghum/finger millet intercrops.
View the document24. Yield, economics and nutrient balance in cropping systems based on rice (oriza sativa).
View the document25. Mechanisms for overyielding in a sunflower/mustard intercrop.
View the document26. Agronomic modification of competition between cassava and pigeonpea in intercropping.
View the document27. Production and economic evaluation of white guinea yam (dioscorea rotundata) minisetts under ridge and bed production systems in a tropical guinea savanna location, Nigeria.
View the document28. Evaluation of intercropping cassava/corn/beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) In northeast Brazil.
View the document29. Intercropping of sweet potato and legumes.
View the document30. Cassava in shifting cultivation. - a system approach to agricultural technology development in Africa.-
View the document31. Economic returns from yam/maize intercrops with various stake densities in a high-rainfall area.
View the document32. Performance of three centrosema spp. And pueraria phaseoloides in grazed associations with andropogon gayanus in the eastern plains of Colombia.
View the document33. Barley, lentil, and flax yield under different intercropping systems.
View the document34. Biological potential and economic feasibility of intercropping oilseeds and pulses with safflower (carthamus tinctorius) in drylands.
View the document35. Screening of different tropical legumes in monoculture and in association with cassava for adaption to acid infertile and high al-content soil.
View the document36. Intercropping studies in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.).
View the document37. Intercropping of rainfed groundnut (arachis hypogaea) with annual oilseed crops under different planting patterns.
View the document38. Resource use and plant interactions in a rice-mungbean intercrop.
View the document39. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part I
View the document40. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part II
View the document41. A post-green revolution strategy for the improvement of small farmer-grown common beans.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

4. A new maize modernizes savanna farming.

In: IITA 1990; Publ. of the Int.Inst. of Trop. Agriculture, (IITA), Nigeria, 1990, pp. 5-8

A new maize has broken the mode of agriculture in northern Nigeria, enabling farmers to begin modernizing their age-old practices with intensified farming.

Agricultural procutivity has improved markedly in the most savanna zone of northern Nigeria. Recent surveys there by IITA and the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) have shown increases in use of improved maize, fertilizer, and improved management practices, such as animal traction and effective weeding, as fallow periods have become abbreviated.

IITA has developed a high-yielding maize variety, TZB, by building on two composite breeding lines of Nigeria's Federal Department of Agricultural Research. In experimental trials the new variety yielded consistently one-and-a-half to two times as much as local varieties.

Also, it was resistant to the fungal diseases of rust, blight, and ear rot, and highly adapted to growing conditions in the savanna.

The agricultural development projects introduced TZB to northern farmers and demonstrated how to obtain high yields.

Maize has become a major food crop in virtually all villages, and a major cash crop in more than two-thirds of them.

Sorghum, traditionally the favorite food crop, is still planted over a greater area than maize. However, since TZB outyields local varieties of sorghum and millet, the other staple cereals in the region, TZB can reduce the land requirement for feeding farmers' families. Many farmers have found that, by growing TZB for household consumption, they can free additional land for cash crops. With the surplus over food needs being marketed, farmers have increased their cash income which they can use to reinvest in cash crop production.

The characteristics which enabled TZB to make farming so commercially viable are its high yields and attractive appearance. Experiments on farmers' fields show that TZB, with moderate levels of fertilizer, yields 21-115% more than local maize. Its grain quality, with a white color and resistance to the ear rot, make it compatible with local food preferences.

The question of sustaining intensification, moreover, spotlights two distinct and critical issues: economic sustainability, in terms of the profitability of maize production; and environmental sustainability, in keeping up soil fertility and keeping down pests and diseases.

Environmental sustainability becomes a problem when cereals dominate the cropping regime, as sorghum and maize do in the savanna. Cereal dominance drains the soil of nutrients, because cereals demand a high level of soil fertility to be productive. And cereal dominance leads to a build-up of specific pests - insects, fungal diseases, nematodes, the parasitic weed striga, among others - because a similar pest and disease complex preys on all cereals. An ominous threat lies in the proximity of sorghum, historically striga's main host, with maize, also highly susceptible. The combination appears to be hastening the spread of the pest.

Several research institutes have joined to explore ways to help promote sustainability by expanding the role of nitrogen-fixing legumes in the cropping system. Legumes restore soil fertility with nitrogen from their residues or direct deposits.

1094 92 - 4/137

Cropping systems

Asia, Thailand, study, field trials, environmental effects, crop adaptation, genotype component, soybean varieties, yield evaluation

IVORY, D.A. et al.

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