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close this bookAbstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ; 1992; 423 pages)
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts On Traditional Land-Use Systems
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on farming systems research and development
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on integrated systems
close this folderAbstracts on cropping system
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Green manure crops in irrigated and rainfed lowland rice-based cropping systems in south Asia.
View the document2. Comparative evaluation of some inter-cropping systems in the humid tropics of southern nigeria.
View the document3. Intercropping improves land-use efficiency.
View the document4. A new maize modernizes savanna farming.
View the document5. Analysis of the environmental component of genotype x environment interaction in crop adaptation evaluation.
View the document6. Climatic analyses and cropping systems in the semiarid tropics.
View the document7. Field crop production in tropical Africa.
View the document8. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics.
View the document9. Software system for plant growth prediction.
View the document10. Flood-tolerant crops for low-input sustainable agriculture in the everglades agricultural area.
View the document11. The physiology of tropical production.
View the document12. Achieving sustainability in cropping systems: the labour requirements of a mulch rotation system in Kalimantan, Indonesia.
View the document13. Grain yield responses in rice to eight tropical green manures.
View the document14. Utilization efficiency of applied nitrogen as related to yield advantage in maize/mungbean intercropping.
View the document15. Effects of two underseed species, medicago polymorpha l. And scorpiurus muricatus l.,on the yield of main crop (durum wheat) and subsequent crop (teff) under humid moisture regimes in Ethiopia.
View the document16. Characterization and environment-management relationships in beans and sorghum intercropped with maize in honduras. (caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras.)
View the document17. Production potential of pigeonpea/pearl millet intercropping system in rainfed diara (floodprone) areas of eastern uttar pradesh, India.
View the document18. Effect of mixed cropping lentil with barley at different seeding rates.
View the document19. Yield performance and complementarity in mixtures of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) And pea (pisum sativum l.).
View the document20. Economic feasibility of green manure in rice-based cropping systems.
View the document21. Effect of nitrogen on pigeonpea (cajanus cajan) and rice (oryza sativa) intercropping system.
View the document22. Smallholder cotton cropping practices in Togo.
View the document23. Effect of row arrangement on yield and yield advantages in sorghum/finger millet intercrops.
View the document24. Yield, economics and nutrient balance in cropping systems based on rice (oriza sativa).
View the document25. Mechanisms for overyielding in a sunflower/mustard intercrop.
View the document26. Agronomic modification of competition between cassava and pigeonpea in intercropping.
View the document27. Production and economic evaluation of white guinea yam (dioscorea rotundata) minisetts under ridge and bed production systems in a tropical guinea savanna location, Nigeria.
View the document28. Evaluation of intercropping cassava/corn/beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) In northeast Brazil.
View the document29. Intercropping of sweet potato and legumes.
View the document30. Cassava in shifting cultivation. - a system approach to agricultural technology development in Africa.-
View the document31. Economic returns from yam/maize intercrops with various stake densities in a high-rainfall area.
View the document32. Performance of three centrosema spp. And pueraria phaseoloides in grazed associations with andropogon gayanus in the eastern plains of Colombia.
View the document33. Barley, lentil, and flax yield under different intercropping systems.
View the document34. Biological potential and economic feasibility of intercropping oilseeds and pulses with safflower (carthamus tinctorius) in drylands.
View the document35. Screening of different tropical legumes in monoculture and in association with cassava for adaption to acid infertile and high al-content soil.
View the document36. Intercropping studies in peanut (arachis hypogaea l.).
View the document37. Intercropping of rainfed groundnut (arachis hypogaea) with annual oilseed crops under different planting patterns.
View the document38. Resource use and plant interactions in a rice-mungbean intercrop.
View the document39. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part I
View the document40. Cassava/legume intercropping with contrasting cassava cultivars. Part II
View the document41. A post-green revolution strategy for the improvement of small farmer-grown common beans.
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroecology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agrometeorology
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on agroforestry
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on homegardens
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on seed production
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on plant protection
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on water management
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on soil fertility
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on erosion and desertification control
Open this folder and view contentsAbstracts on potential crops for marginal lands
 

6. Climatic analyses and cropping systems in the semiarid tropics.

In: Weather and Rice; Proc. of an Int. Workshop on the Impact of Weather Parameters on Growth and Yield of Rice; Publ. of IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines, 1987, pp. 215-220

Climate and agriculture are intimately related. Both long-term meteorological factors (climate) and short-term meteorological events (weather) affect crop growth, development, and production.

Studies of climate help understand crop production and other land use patterns that have evolved over a long period of time and assist in introducing new and more productive farming systems. At ICRISAT the relevance of climatic environment to the development of improved cropping systems for semiarid tropical areas are studied.

Semiarid tropical (SAT) areas are defined as those regions that have a mean annual temperature exceeding 18 C and mean monthly rainfall exceeding mean monthly potential evapotranspiration for 2-4.5 consecutive months in the dry SAT and 4.5-7 month in the wet/dry SAT.

Precipitation is characterized by annual and seasonal variability. the coefficient of variation for annual rainfall is 20-30%. Even within the rainy season, droughts of varying durations are common.

The major climatic constraint to crops in the tropics is lack of adequate water. Against a continuing evaporative demand, the supply is discontinuous and variable, particularly in the drylands.

To cope with the variable climate, farmers tend to grow a mixture of crops. They usually include long-duration crops in their cropping systems.

Traditionally, the SAT areas have had agropastoral, silvipastoral, and agroforestry production patterns. Cultivation had been mainly restricted to dryland crops, with a crop or two of rice in the lowlands or where irrigation water is available. With large population increases in recent years, most of the land is now sown to crops; the area under forests and grasslands is rapidly decreasing. Soil erosion has increased tremendously and surface waterstorage systems have lost much of their effective storage capacity. Crop production is much more variable in both drylands and irrigated areas. Average crop production from the drylands does not exceed 0.7 t/ha a year in most of the SAT.

Agroclimatic analysis helps define the recommendation domain for transferring technology from the research center to farmers' fields.

An efficient cropping system is determined largely by climatic, and management factors. A more complete quantification of the temporal and spatial distributions of natural resources is a key factor in assessing the agricultural production potential of a region. Mapping the agroclimate of an area in relation to its resources could give the recommendation parameters for improved cropping systems or farming systems technology.

A map of semiarid India showing the suitability of areas for the adoption of improved technology has been prepared.

1096 92 - 4/139

Cropping systems

Africa, tropics, review, book, field crops production, agronomic practices, climatic factors, soil fertility, irrigation, drainage, cereals, roots, tubers, grain legumes, oilseed crops, fibre crops, beverages, CTA

ONWUEME, I.C. and T.D. SINHA

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