6.3 Disposal of Asbestos containing materials
Although nearly a complete substitution of Asbestos containing products is currently possible, in the future further increases in the arisings of Asbestos containing wastes are expected, since many of the products produced in the past are nearing the end of their lifespan. Asbestos abatement projects are another source of Asbestos containing wastes.
The main portion of Asbestos containing wastes arise from building materials (Asbestos cement and sprayed Asbestos). For a long time the disposal situation was such that these materials could be mixed with other building debris in a more or less carefree manner, and be deposited at landfills for building debris and excavated soil, (IACS, S. 12.1 ) without provision of measures against dust formation and possible Asbestos fiber release.
Just the more recent national and supra-national legislation considers the hazard of Asbestos containing wastes. The Basel Convention against cross-boundary transport of wastes, for example, lists Asbestos containing wastes in the catalogue of substances to be controlled. The EC-Guideline 78/319/EEC from 1978 also categorizes Asbestos dust and fibers as hazardous wastes. The federal German waste legislation treats Asbestos dust and sprayed Asbestos as wastes requiring particular supervision according to Article 2 Para. 2 of the Waste Law (§ 2 Abs.2 AbfG). The foreseen disposal paths are: deposition at a special waste landfill or domestic waste landfill, as well as chemical/physical treatment.
Based on the environmental relevance of Asbestos containing substances, there are no arguments against the deposition at domestic waste landfills, since no special measures are necessary regarding discharge of leachate with subsequent potential soil and groundwater contamination. The environmental relevance of Asbestos containing wastes arises from the health damaging effect from Asbestos exposure. For this reason, fiber emissions during the disposal are to be minimized. There are relatively simple possibilities for this minimization of emissions:
• Encapsulation with binding agent (cement)
The German States' Working Group on Wastes (Landerarbeitsgemeinschaft Abfall, LAGA) have published instructions on the disposal of Asbestos containing wastes with the following recommendations:
1. Abestos containing wastes are not reusable/recyclable.
2. The incineration of Asbestos containing wastes is not allowed.
3. Asbestos dust and wastes with friable Asbestos and other Asbestos containing wastes in which Asbestos fibers can easily be released are to be treated so that they can be disposed of at domestic waste landfills or mono-landfills. The treatment includes basically the encapsulation with hydraulic binding agents, if possible at the site of origin.
4. Wastes with nonfriable Asbestos fibers should be kept moist until they are deposited at the landfill (mono or domestic wastes), in order to avoid dust generation.
In summary, the transport and disposal of Asbestos containing wastes should be performed using measures to prevent dust development and the release of Asbestos fibers. Firm binding, e.g. with cement, is recommended for the final deposition.
[Ukrainian] [English] [Russian]