Electrical Machines - Basic Vocational Knowledge (IBE - Deutschland; 144 pages) Introduction 1. General information about electrical machines 2. Basic principles 3. Execution of rotating electrical machines 4. Synchronous machines 5. Asynchronous motors 6. Direct current machines 7. Single-phase alternating current motors 7.1. Single-phase asynchronous motors (single-phase induction motors) 7.1.1. Assembly and operating principle 7.1.2. Operational behaviour 7.1.3. Technical data 7.2. Three-phase asynchronous motor in single-phase operation (capacitor motor) 7.3. Split pole motors 7.4. Single-phase commutator motors (universal motors) 8. Transformer

#### 7.1.1. Assembly and operating principle

The torque of a three-phase asynchronous motor (Cp. Section 5.2.1.) stems from an induction voltage generated in the rotating field of the rotor windings. This induction voltage yields rotor current I2:

M = C • Φ1• I2• cosφ2

Thus, torque only arises given a relative movement between the stator field and the rotor winding. Where the lead to a winding strand in a three-phase asynchronous motor is interrupted, the said motor runs single-phased. Consequently, no torque is forthcoming as long as there is no relative movement between the stator field and the conductor arrangement in the rotor.

The single-phase driven axynchronous motor develops a torque during operation, but not whilst idling; nor can it start off its own bat.

Asynchronous motors for single-phase operation exist wherever there is no three-phase connection, and are very much desired.

However, such motors must be able to start themselves. Precondition is that a rotating field is created to replace the alternating field. This, however, is only possible if spatially positioned coils are saturated by temporally displaced currents.

Every single-phase asynchronous motor which is to start itself, must have two windings whereby the second spatially positioned winding must be saturated by a current which has been phase-displaced opposite the current of the first winding.

This second winding need only be switching on for starting and is characterised as auxiliary winding. The permanently switched on main winding covers some two thirds of the stator circumference whilst the auxiliary winding fills in the remaining part of the grooves in the lamella pack.

The single-phased asynchronous motor yields an ideal rotating field if the main and auxiliary windings are repositioned at 90 degrees and the phase displacement of the strand currents is also 90 degrees. Such operation can be virtually attained given single-phase feeding provided a capacitor is switched to the auxiliary winding. This capacitor must have a capacity in line with the rated load and desired starting behaviour.

Figure 113 - Single-phase motor with auxiliary winding and (1) starting capacitor CA, (2) operating capacitor CB, (3) starting and operating capacitor

1 Starting capacitor, 2 Operating capacitor

The rotor of the single-phase asynchronous motor generally has a squirrel cage.