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close this bookElectrical Machines - Basic Vocational Knowledge (IBE - Deutschland; 144 pages)
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contents1. General information about electrical machines
Open this folder and view contents2. Basic principles
Open this folder and view contents3. Execution of rotating electrical machines
Open this folder and view contents4. Synchronous machines
Open this folder and view contents5. Asynchronous motors
Open this folder and view contents6. Direct current machines
Open this folder and view contents7. Single-phase alternating current motors
close this folder8. Transformer
Open this folder and view contents8.1. Transformer principle
close this folder8.2. Operational behaviour of a transformer
View the document8.2.1. Idling behaviour Idling features
View the document8.2.2. Short-circuit behaviour
View the document8.2.3. Loaded voltage behaviour
View the document8.2.4. Efficiency
Open this folder and view contents8.3. Three-phase transformer

8.2.2. Short-circuit behaviour

Short-circuit curves

Secondary current I2 increases if load resistance is decreased. Where Za = 0 the transformer has been short-circuited.

Primary circuit

U1 is applied


IK flows

Secondary circuit

Za = 0


U2 = 0

Short-circuit voltage

The short-circuited transformer can be replaced by resistor Z1 which corresponds to the transformer internal resistor.

Figure 130 - Short-circuited transformer

1 Short-circuit current IK

Figure 131 depicts the commensurate duplicate circuit diagram.

Figure 131 - Duplicate circuit diagram for short circuit run

1 Ohmic winding resistance, 2 Scattered reactance (is made up of the scatter flow of the input and output coils), 3 Inner resistance of the transformer (impedance)

During a short-circuit attempt (Figure 132) the input voltage given a short-circuited output winding is increased until primary and secondary nominal currents flow. The voltage applied to the input side is then the short-circuit voltage UK.

Figure 132 - Circuitry to determine short-circuit losses

1 Short circuit voltage
The short-circuit voltage is the overall voltage decrease of a transformer during rated loading.

The relative short-circuit voltage UK in % is determined by the following equation:

The relative short-circuit voltage is, on average, 2 to 10% of input rated voltage (U1n) in mains transformers.

Short-circuit losses (winding losses)

In the short-circuit experiment (Figure 132) a power meter indicates short-circuit losses as the primary and secondary rated currents generate winding losses. The iron core is only slightly magnetised by the applied short-circuit voltage (UK U1).

The winding losses can be metered during the short-circuit experiment. They are dependent on the load current (PVW = I2 R).
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