8.3.1. Three-phase transformation with single-phase transformers
For economical reasons the transmission of electric power these days is not undertaken by single-phase systems but by three-phase systems. Thereby, three-phase alternating voltage has to be transformed into another, like frequency and number of phases. The transformation is possible by means of three identical single-phase transformers.
The resultant voltages must not only possess the same value but shall also evidence a mutual phase displacement of 120 degrees.
Consequently, the mains connection of the single-phase transformers must ensure a delta or star circuit despite the spatially separate installation of electric primary and secondary winding connections.
In view of their size, big transformers of this kind come as so-called three-phase (transformer) bank. They are generally added by a fourth single-phase transformer. This latter unit constitutes the reserve and can be switched on if another transformer fails.
Material and space requirements are usually too great for medium and small power units for this kind of transformation. The constructional fusion into a unit leads to substantial material economies.
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