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close this bookAmplifier Teaching Aid (GTZ, DED; 86 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderLesson 1 - Semiconductor Review
close this folderLesson Plan
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentDoping a semiconductor
View the documentDiode
View the documentWorksheet No. 1
View the documentExperiment No. 1
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 2 - Bipolar Transistor
Open this folder and view contentsBipolar Transistor II
View the documentFirst Evaluation
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 4 - Transistor Fundamentals
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 5 - Transistor Biasing
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 6 - Transistor Biasing II
View the documentSecond Evaluation
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 7 - Small Signal Amplifier
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 8 - Small Signal Amplifier II
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 9 - Small Signal Amplifier III
Open this folder and view contentsLesson 10 - Large Signal Amplifier
View the documentThird Evaluation
 

Introduction

Conductor

A neutral copper atom has only one electron in its outer orbit. Since the single electron can be easily dislodged from its atom, it is called a free electron.

Semiconductor

Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material. The number of electrons in the valence orbit is the key to conductivity. Conductors have one valence electron, semiconductors have four valence electrons, and insulators have eight valence electrons.

Silicon Crystals

Each silicon atom in a crystal has its four valence electrons plus four more electrons that are shared by the neighboring atoms. At room temperature, a pure silicon crystal has only a few thermally-produced free electrons and holes.

Intrinsic Semiconductor

An intrinsic semiconductor is a pure semiconductor. Intrinsic silicon acts as an insulator at room temperature.

Two Types of Flow

Flow of free electrons, flow of holes


Fig. 1-1: Types of Flow

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