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close this bookFunctional Adult Literacy (FAL) - Training Manual (DVV, UNICEF; 1996; 106 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgment
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
close this folderUnit One: Functional Adult Literacy and Its Implications
View the document1.1 Introduction to Literacy
View the document1.2 Development and Methodology of an Integrated Functional Adult Literacy Approach
View the document1.3 Introduction to Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in Functional Adult Literacy
View the document1.4 Gender Issues in Functional Adult Literacy
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Two: Facilitating Adult Learning
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Three: Facilitating FAL Classes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Four: Organising and Managing FAL Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Five: Integrating Functional Adult Literacy in other Development Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Six: Monitoring and Evaluating Functional Adult Literacy Programmes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Sample Lesson Plan for Luganda Learners
View the documentAnnex 2 - Sample Lesson Plan for Runyankore/Rukiga
View the documentAnnex 3 - Sample Lesson Plan for Lusoga
 

1.3 Introduction to Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in Functional Adult Literacy

a) Introduction:

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a “new” way of conducting research involving the local communities. It was originally developed by agricultural development workers, but currently it has been adapted and adopted by almost all development workers - literacy ones inclusive. This topic covers:

 

• some basic tools used in PRA.
• how to integrate PRA in FAL.

b) Objectives:

By the end of the topic, the participants should be able to:

 

• identify some of the tools used in conducting a PRA exercise.
• construct maps, calendars and matrices in a participatory way.
• describe ways of integrating PRA in FAL sessions.

c) Time: 2.30 hours.

d) Learning Aids: Stones, seeds, clear ground/floor, chalk, blackboard, leaves, newsprint, markers.

e) Procedure and Learning Points:

1. [10 min.]. Trainer leads a brainstorming session about the research techniques people use in their work and asks participants what they know about PRA. Following this he/she provides a brief overview of PRA using the information in the learning points below.

Learning Points:

 

- Some research techniques include interviews, questionnaires, observations, focus group discussions and PRA.

- PRA is an intensive, systematic but semi-structured learning experience carried out in a community by a multi-disciplinary team which includes community members. It can be used for; needs assessment, feasibility studies, identifying priorities for development activities, monitoring or evaluating development activities.

2. [10 min.] Trainer provides an overview of the range of some tools used in PRA by writing them on blackboard or newsprint.

Learning Points:

PRA tools used are categorised under:

 

• Participatory mappings such as village/local maps to show households, natural resources, etc.

• Seasonal analyses/calendars to show seasonal variations of prices, weather, diseases, etc.

• Rankings/matrices like wealth rankings, preference rankings, etc. to compare the priorities of individuals.

• Other PRA diagrams like timelines, transect walks, etc.

3. [30 min.] Ask participants who live in the same village/parish to come together and draw a map of their village/parish. If the trainer comes from the same area, he/she can start off the process by holding the stick/chalk, then draw the boundary of the village/parish. Hand over the stick/chalk to others to participate.

Learning Points:

 

- Maps can be used to show number of households in the village, social centres (schools, clinics, etc.), village/parish natural resources, etc. Let participants agree on what they want their map to be.

- Use as many local materials available as possible - stones, seeds, to represent features on a map.

- The map drawn on the ground/floor can be transferred to newsprint for storage.


The Men’s Map


The Boy’s Map

An example of participatory maps produced by different people to represent the same situation. Note the differences between the Men’s map and Boy’s map. Viewing the same situation differently can also occur depending on sex, age, educational level, etc.

4. [30 min.] Involve participants in drawing a calendar on the ground/floor. Ask them to draw 12 columns which represent the 12 months in a year. The months should be named 1, 2, 3, etc. or use local names for a month if it exists in a community. Let them decide what they want to analyse annually. Is it diseases occurrence? hunger? price changes of crops? rainfall? If it is rainfall for instance, start with the wettest months in the year. Agree on the symbols you are to use for quantifying amounts of rainfall (stones, seeds, etc.). More rainfall in a month means more of these symbols in that particular month than that one with less rainfall.

Complete the calendar by allowing the local people to agree amongst themselves if the calendar reveals the picture as it is in their area.

Learning Points:

 

- Calendars can be easily constructed by the local people if the process is not complicated by the trainer.

- Like maps, one calendar can combine various items you may want to analyse seasonally, e.g. a rainfall calendar can be used also to show agricultural activities and price variations of crops. So one calendar can have 3 items analysed seasonally - rainfall, agricultural activities and price variations.

- Determine with participants the way you will show the variations between the months. E.g. 10 stones can stand for wet months, 5 stones for moderately wet and 1 stone for almost dry if you are analysing rainfall.

MONTHS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

RAINFALL
in mm

                       

AGRICULTURAL
ACTIVITY

                       

PRICE
in shs/kg

                       

5. [30 min.] Involve participants in constructing one example of a direct ranking matrix. Ask participants to choose a class of objects which is important to them (e.g. foods - matooke, millet, maize, beans, cassava). List the criteria about these foodstuffs like nutritive values, resistance to pests, easy storage, perishable, resistance to weather changes. On the top row, put the different foodstuffs apart and on the left column list the criteria. You can use different symbols to represent the criteria already listed. Next, assign a score for each foodstuff depending on the criteria listed like in the table below:-

Example of direct matrix ranking:

 

Foodstuffs

           

Criteria

Matooke

Millet

Maize

Beans

Cassava

Nutritive value

1

5

3

4

2

Drought resistance

3

4

2

1

5

Pest resistance

4

5

2

1

3

Perishable

1

5

3

2

4

Easy storage

1

5

2

3

4

Income earning

2

5

1

2

3

           

Total score

12

29

13

13

21

           

Rank

5

1

3

3

2

The best foodstuffs according to this ranking basing on the above criteria would be millet; 5 means best; 1 means worst.

Learning Points:

 

- You can use such a matrix to rank local preferences for a particular item.
- The rankings differ from group to group.
- There are other examples of matrices like preference rankings, pairwise rankings, etc., which also have almost similar principles in construction.

6. [20 min.] In groups, ask participants to describe ways of integrating PRA in FAL lessons.

7. [10 min.] Presentations by all groups.

Learning Points:

We can use these PRA tools in literacy classes in several ways;

 

• the drawings themselves on the ground/floor are good exercises for a beginner in literacy classes - easing hand muscles.

• the representation of symbols on small visual cards contributes to visual literacy.

• PRA tools are good “eye-openers” (like maps) and good analysis tools (like calendars, matrices). Therefore, good in analysing issues related to the functionality of a learner.

• a lot of numeracy is involved in these tools.

• we can start with a PRA tool on the ground before discussing a generative picture in the primer, e.g. before discussing a picture on family planning, we can use a household map to identify families with very many children and women.

f) Assessment [10 min.] Ask participants to identify problems associated with doing PRA with the illiterate.

g) Follow-up

Participants given a hand-out on PRA to read and later discuss the importance of PRA in a FAL programme.

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