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close this bookFunctional Adult Literacy (FAL) - Training Manual (DVV, UNICEF; 1996; 106 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgment
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsUnit One: Functional Adult Literacy and Its Implications
close this folderUnit Two: Facilitating Adult Learning
View the document2.1 Characteristics of Adult Learners and Qualities of a Good Instructor
View the document2.2 Methods of Facilitating Adult Learning
View the document2.3 Communication Skills to Help Adults Learn
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Three: Facilitating FAL Classes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Four: Organising and Managing FAL Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Five: Integrating Functional Adult Literacy in other Development Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Six: Monitoring and Evaluating Functional Adult Literacy Programmes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Sample Lesson Plan for Luganda Learners
View the documentAnnex 2 - Sample Lesson Plan for Runyankore/Rukiga
View the documentAnnex 3 - Sample Lesson Plan for Lusoga
 

2.2 Methods of Facilitating Adult Learning

a) Introduction:

A facilitator makes a choice of a method to use in a given situation depending on a number of factors that determine which method is suitable and which is not. It is useful for a facilitator to be able to use a variety of methods so as to make an appropriate choice for every situation. This topic will for this reason introduce a number of methods suitable for adult learners, taking into account factors affecting the selection of each method.

b) Objectives:

By the end of this topic, the participants should be able to:

 

• Describe the various methods of helping adults learn.
• Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

c) Time: 2 hours 10 minutes.

d) Learning Aids: Newsprint, markers, blackboard, chalk, diagram showing how participatory different methods are.

e) Procedure and Learning Points:

1. [20 min.] Brainstorm on the methods known to the participants. Then facilitator presents the other methods not mentioned by the participants followed by a short discussion.

Learning Points: Some of the likely methods of instruction are:
Lecture method, Group discussion, Case study, Demonstration, Role play, Study visit, Brainstorms, Buzzes, Story-telling, Simulation.

2. [40 min.] Participants go in groups of 5 - 7 to work on the following task: “What are the advantages and disadvantages of facilitating adults to learn?”

Learning Points:

(i) Lecture Method:

A straight talk without much interruption. Often used when introducing new subject matter or when the audience in large enough. A lecture should be of 30 minutes or less and it should be followed by any of the other techniques listed below.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

   

- Less time consuming.

- Less participatory.

- Covers large audience.

- Can be boring if long.

- Good for introducing new subject.

- Does not lead to discovery.

(ii) Group Discussion:

A face-to-face conversation or deliberation on a subject of mutual interest among two to 15 people who know one another. Sharing or exchange of ideas and information is encouraged among the members under the guidance of a leader. This technique emphasises participation of the members - who should be given adequate time and guidance during the discussion. Groups help to digest the ideas introduced through the lecture technique.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

   

- Participatory

- Time consuming.

- Learning interesting.

- Requires more preparation.

- Generates ideas.

- More resources/materials used.

- Promotes interaction.

 

(iii) Case Study:

Is a written or verbal presentation which is used to illustrate or make clearer theoretical points which are introduced to the learners during a lecture.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

   

- Stimulates more examples.

- Difficult to prepare cases.

- Guides in a discussion.

- May offend some participants unknowingly.

(iv) Demonstration:

Is a technique that is applied by an instructor to explain how skills in handling certain materials and equipment are acquired. It involves a pre-demonstration when materials are prepared. It is followed by a post-demonstration when the trainees attempt to practice the skills acquired.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

   

- Very practical.

- Difficult to prepare.

- Appeals to all senses of a person.

- Time consuming.

- Brings participants nearer to reality.

- Demands a lot of resources.

- More rewarding.

 

(v) Role Play:

Is used in training when learners are given specific roles to play which depict a certain character that is important in behaviour changes.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

   

- Very practical.

- May offend the shy.

- Creates awareness.

- Messages may be distorted.

- Stimulates learners.

- Not easy to prepare.

(vi) Study Visit:

Is used when participants are taken out for observation to live cases. For example, farmers from one village are taken to a harm Institute. The visit is followed by a discussion.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

- Stimulates learning.

- Expensive.

- Brings out challenges.

- Time consuming.

- Very practical.

 

- Breaks monotony of classroom.

 

(vii) Simulation:

Is used when participants are due for practice. Participants are asked to try out any or all the other methods under the guidance of a trainer.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

- Most practical of all methods.

- Time consuming.

- Strengths and weaknesses are identified.

- More materials used.

- Easy to correct weaknesses.

 

3. [40 min.] In plenary, groups present their work.

4. [5 min.] Wrap up. Choice of a method to use depends upon its advantages and disadvantages that have been identified.

f) [20 min.] Assessment:

Present the following diagram and participants complete it.


Participatory Learning

Note: The Lecture is the least participatory (least learning) and Simulation is the most participatory (most learning) to the learner.

g) Follow-up:

Ask participants to design an assessment form which they will use to assess how participatory a given method is.

NAME OF METHOD

LEVEL OF LEARNERS PARTICIPATION

DURATION

PREPARATION

 

High

Medium

Low

High

Medium

Low

High

Medium

Low

Lecture

   

   

   

Brainstorming

     

       

Buzz Group

 

     

   

Study visit

             

Roleplay

       

     

Group discussion

     

 

 

Case study

     

   

 

Demonstration

   

         

Simulation

   

   

   
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