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close this bookFunctional Adult Literacy (FAL) - Training Manual (DVV, UNICEF; 1996; 106 pages)
View the documentAcknowledgment
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsUnit One: Functional Adult Literacy and Its Implications
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Two: Facilitating Adult Learning
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Three: Facilitating FAL Classes
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Four: Organising and Managing FAL Programmes
close this folderUnit Five: Integrating Functional Adult Literacy in other Development Programmes
View the document5.1 Integrating FAL with other Key Players
View the document5.2 Integrating FAL in Income-generating Activities
View the document5.3 Integrating FAL in Labour/Energy Saving Technologies
View the document5.4 Integrating FAL in Health Education
View the document5.5 Integrating FAL in the Civic Life of the Community
Open this folder and view contentsUnit Six: Monitoring and Evaluating Functional Adult Literacy Programmes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Sample Lesson Plan for Luganda Learners
View the documentAnnex 2 - Sample Lesson Plan for Runyankore/Rukiga
View the documentAnnex 3 - Sample Lesson Plan for Lusoga

5.2 Integrating FAL in Income-generating Activities

a) Introduction:

Adult learners are also expected to be functional economically i.e. the knowledge and skills they get from literacy should enable adult learners to start and effectively manage income-generating activities of their choice.

This topic therefore looks at how literacy can be applied to income-generating activities. Criteria for selecting viable income-generating activities and the conditions for successful implementation of income-generating activities are also examined.

b) Objectives:

By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:


- identify the criteria for selecting viable income-generating activities
- list the requirements necessary for successful management of income-generating activities
- mention at least 2 literacy skills that can be applied to income-generating activities;

c) Time: 2 hours.

d) Learning Aids: Newsprint, cards, markers, masking tape, blackboard, chalk, beans, & cup [where possible, if not, mime].

e) Procedure and Learning Points:

Step 1: Role Play:

[30 minutes] At the market, Jessica is selling her beans. She measures a number of cups [35] but half way loses count and asks John the buyer to tell her the exact amount of cups but his answer does not convince her. So she empties the measured heap of beans back to the rest of her stock and starts measuring all over again.

Facilitator’s Questions:


a) What was happening in the case study?
b) Does it happen in your community?
c) What is the problem?
d) What causes it?
e) What are its consequences?
f) What would you do to solve it?

Possible responses:


a) Woman is failing to count the measurements of beans.
b) Inability to count (especially many figures)
c) Crude units of measurement,


- illiteracy,
- poor memory.


d) Cheating,


- business collapse,
- frustration, loss of confidence,
- inferiority feelings.


e) Teach skills of literacy to make the woman functional.

Step 2: Buzz session (2 or 3 participants):

Participants discuss “What they do for earning extra income and what guided them to select that activity”.

[35 min.] Facilitator or each buzz group puts the group responses on newsprint or blackboard. These are then discussed by the bigger group.

Possible responses:

What guided in selecting the activity:


• demand for the product/services.
• market availability.
• availability and amount of capital required.
• profitability of the activity.
• ease of transportation and storage.
• availability of other raw materials

Step 3:

[30 min] Facilitator asks participants to think of the successful and unsuccessful businessmen/businesswomen in their locality and identify the reasons why they, were successful or unsuccessful.

What is required for successful management of an income-generating activity? Responses are discussed at length.

Possible responses:

Requirements for successful management of income-generating activities. The promoter should:


- be prepared to take risks.
- have foresight.
- be resourceful.
- be profit-minded.
- have effective use and control of resources.
- be disciplined and enjoy good public relations.
- practice good book-keeping.
- put in place effective management structures, e.g. project committee.
- work hard.
- be market-oriented.

Step 4: Brainstorming Session:

Facilitator asks participants to mention literacy skills which they could use in income-generation.

[20 minutes] Participants’ responses are written on blackboard or newsprint or cards. These are in turn discussed and agreed upon.

Possible Literacy Skills:


- Calculating profits and losses
- Counting
- Listing business stock/requirements
- Reading weighing measurements
- Writing business letters and project proposals/applications
- Reading a receipt
- Identifying different currencies and denominations (20/- note, 100/- note, etc.)
- Calculating daily sales.
- Measurement of weights, lengths, capacity.
- Writing contracts.
- Reading calendars.


Most businesses have collapsed because the promoters did not take into consideration a number of factors such as their marketability, profitability and cost-effectiveness. It is important therefore to fully analyse all the determining factors so that only viable income-generating activities are selected. During this process, the relevant literacy skills for income-generating activities are mastered.

f) Assessment:

[5 min.] Facilitator presents two examples of income-generating activities i.e. crocodile rearing and mushroom growing.

Participants are then asked to decide on which income-generation activity they think would be successful and why.

g) Follow-up:

Identify a viable income-generating activity to be undertaken individually or in groups.

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