Change to Ukrainian interface versionChange to English interface versionChange to Russian interface versionHome pageClear last query resultsHelp page
Search for specific termsBrowse by subject categoryBrowse alphabetical list of titlesBrowse by organizationBrowse special topic issues

close this book25 Steps to Safe Water and Sanitation - Experience and Learning in International Cooperation (SKAT; 2000; 42 pages)
View the documentCommunity-oriented stepwise approach - A Step-by-step approach in drinking water and sanitation projects
View the documentList of abbreviations
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPART I - BACKGROUND
View the documentCHAPTER 1: Helvetas' involvement in drinking water and sanitation in Nepal 1976-2000
View the documentCHAPTER 2: The three phases of the SRWSP approach
Open this folder and view contentsPART II - SALIENT FEATURES
Open this folder and view contentsPART III - NEW DIRECTIONS
View the documentReferences
 

CHAPTER 2: The three phases of the SRWSP approach

Taking into consideration a set of principles such as empowerment, justice and equity, gender equality, and rolling planning, the objectives for SRWSP are formulated and divided into five main categories:

• Community management and empowerment (with special emphasis on women).
• Improved sanitation and health.
• Provision of safe drinking water.
• Sustainability (through well-functioning operation & maintenance (O&M) systems).
• Partnership and capacity development in partners.


To achieve these objectives, a strong community-oriented process approach is chosen. The community is guided through a stepwise process that encourages its members to become self-reliant in solving drinking water and sanitation problems. Health and sanitation education and all technical tasks are fully integrated in the process. No specific targets are set, the programme activities are planned flexibly. A process of rolling planning is adopted, based on experiences gained and lessons learned. No particular target groups are defined, but women and marginalised groups within the given community receive special emphasis. At several points along this process, the active participation of these groups is a pre-condition for further progress.

The community is guided through a stepwise process that encourages its members to become self- reliant in solving drinking-water and sanitation problems.

The stepwise process is a series of activities and benchmarks that safeguard the integrity of the project process and increase community ownership. A number of specific activities and/or criteria must each be fulfilled by the community. A new operation is started only once all previous required activities have been completed. For a project to reach completion, it needs to successfully run through three phases: Preparation, Construction, and Operation & Maintenance. The duration of each step and each phase depends entirely on the commitment, ability and willingness of the community (a detailed description of the 25 steps can be found in chapter 3).

The stepwise process is a series of activities and benchmarks that safeguard the integrity of the project process and increase community ownership.

1. Preparation phase

During the preparation phase, preceding the construction of a drinking water scheme, numerous activities take place which lead to improved community management and better sanitation practices among the people. Those activities include assessment and analysis of the community in the field of drinking water and environmental sanitation, community mobilisation to form a Water and Sanitation Management Committee (WSMC), Health and Sanitation Education (HSE), training of WSMC members, fund raising for operation and maintenance, and participatory monitoring. Only after completion of these activities is a detailed technical survey and planning for the drinking water system initiated. At the end of the preparation phase, when the design and material estimates are ready, the community plans for collection of locally available material, transportation of additional construction material to the village and all construction. This is the start of the construction phase. The duration of the preparation phase varies but usually is one to two years.

Activities to be completed and criteria to be fulfilled by the community during the preparation phase are:

• The villagers inform the local authorities of the application forwarded to Helvetas.

• A Water and Sanitation Management Committee is formed, representing all groups in the community and reflecting in its actions their tasks and responsibilities.

• The whole community actively participates in the fulfillment of all the steps and is involved in the planning and decision-making processes.

• An O&M fund is collected and deposited at a local bank.

• Willingness to change sanitary habits is demonstrated by the construction and use of a locally appropriate latrine.

• A written agreement is signed on the use of the proposed water source and on the place of the proposed location of structures, including tapstands and tanks.

• Technical and feasibility studies are conducted.

• The community agrees to mobilise its own resources, including human resources, and to assume full responsibility for operation and maintenance.


2. Construction phase

The construction phase is the shortest of the three. An average gravity flow system, consisting of a 5 km main pipeline length, a storage and distribution tank, some other structures and a total of seven tapstands serving about 50 households can be completed within three months.

The construction phase is the shortest of the three. An average gravity flow system, consisting of a 5 km main pipeline length, a storage and distribution tank, some other structures and a total of seven tapstands serving about 50 households can be completed within three months. SRWSP provides skilled and technically qualified staff to guide and support the community, but it is the people themselves who must build their own drinking water scheme. During this phase a Village Maintenance Worker (VMW), appointed by the community, is trained on the job and during an intensive two-week training programme. After completion of the construction work and the subsequent final commissioning, the operation and maintenance phase begins.

3. Operation and maintenance phase

The operation and maintenance phase is open-ended for the community, while for SRWSP it is limited to two years. The objectives of the O&M phase are:

• to enhance sustainability of the sanitation and drinking water facilities by providing support to the WSMC, VMW and Woman Tapstand Caretakers (WTC),

• to allow time to detect any technical shortcomings and need for improvement and modification,

• to monitor the programme's effect and overall impact.


In order to achieve these objectives, the project area is visited at least five times, training is made available to build local capacity, and follow-up is provided. During the O&M phase the community can turn to the District Drinking Water Office (DWSO) for technical support, while their own funds will be adequate to cover costs for repair work. The complete project duration, from its beginning to the start of the O&M phase, takes about two years. The stepwise process is illustrated in a poster and small booklet serving as guideline for the community (see the poster showing the process and its steps, enclosed with this brochure).

Partnership

Partnership is a key feature in the implementation of the whole programme. SRWSP has a very broad scope of partners but essentially works within two types of partnership: dual and multiple. A dual partnership entails cooperation between SRWSP and the community represented by a Water and Sanitation Management Committee (WSMC). In the multiple partnership approach, SRWSP cooperates with various organisations, such as NGOs, technical consultants, local authorities, and governmental drinking water agencies, and reaches the community in this way. Cooperation with the NGO sector takes place mainly in the areas making up the programme's social component, while consultants are given the responsibilities in the technical field. Local authorities and governmental agencies are partners for coordination and cooperation. Others are involved for specific tasks such as training.


Chart of stakeholders

 

to previous section to next section

[Ukrainian]  [English]  [Russian]