Appendix 1: Conceptualizing Nutrition Problems in Society
The life cycle depicted in Figure 1.1 of Chapter 1 shows how various nutrition problems, causes, and consequences change and interact over rime. To better understand what causes such problems, it is necessary to systematically consider the operation of various determinants of malnutrition at different levels in society. The food-health-care conceptual framework is a widely used analytical tool portraying causal factors and their interactions at three main levels - immediate, underlying, and basic.
The synergistic interaction between the two immediate causes - inadequate dietary intake and disease - accounts for much of the high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Three groups of underlying factors contribute to inadequate dietary intake and infectious disease: household food insecurity, inadequate care, and poor health services and an unhealthy environment. These underlying causes are, in turn, underpinned by basic causes that relate to the amount, control, and use of various resources. The framework is used throughout this report as an organizing principle for discussions of etiology and approaches to remedial action. Although this version of the framework pertains to child undernutrition, it can easily be adapted to other age groups and to other nutritional outcomes.
Source: Adapted from 1.
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