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close this book4th Report on the World Nutrition Situation - Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle (SCN; 2000; 138 pages)
View the documentADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE ON COORDINATION/SUB-COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION - (ACC/SCN) THE UN SYSTEM’S FORUM FOR NUTRITION
View the documentINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentHIGHLIGHTS
View the documentCONTRIBUTORS
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentPREFACE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 1: NUTRITION THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 2: MICRONUTRIENT UPDATE
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 3: BREASTFEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 4: NUTRITION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Open this folder and view contentsCHAPTER 5: NUTRITION OF REFUGEES AND DISPLACED POPULATIONS
close this folderAPPENDICES
View the documentAppendix 1: Conceptualizing Nutrition Problems in Society
View the documentAppendix 2: Countries in the UN Regions and Sub-Regions
View the documentAppendix 3: Methods to Estimate Trends in Undernutrition Prevalence: A Review
View the documentAppendix 4: Statistical Notes for Sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3
View the documentAppendix 5: Latest National Prevalence of Stunting and Underweight in Preschool Children
View the documentAppendix 6: Explaining Trends in Child Underweight in the Developing World
View the documentAppendix 7: Data Employed for Analysis of Child Underweight Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa
View the documentAppendix 8: Prevalence and Numbers of Overweight Preschool Children in 1995
View the documentAppendix 9: Countries Classified by WHO Regions
View the documentAppendix 10: National Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes
View the documentAppendix 11: Summary of Five Studies of the Social Impacts of the Indonesian Crisis
View the documentAppendix 12: Some Food and Nutrition Information and Data Resources on the Internet
View the documentREFERENCES
View the documentBACK COVER
 

Appendix 11: Summary of Five Studies of the Social Impacts of the Indonesian Crisis

The five studies referred to in section 4.2 are described in greater detail here:

 

1. Helen Keller International (HKI) set up a nutrition surveillance system in rural Central Java from late 1995 to early 1997. With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Asian Development Bank, this system was revived in June 1998 and initiated in rural and urban areas in five other provinces.

2. The Rand Corporation, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and the Demographic Institute at the University of Indonesia had been conducting a large ongoing longitudinal survey - the Indonesian Family Life Survey - since 1993/94. The survey covers 30,000 individuals in 13 of 27 provinces and is representative of 83% of the national population. IFLS-2 was conducted in late 1997 and IFLS2+, a special sub-sample of approximately 7,500 individuals, was conducted in late 1998 in a deliberate effort to track the impacts of the crisis. IFLS2+ was funded by a number of organizations, including me World Health Organization (WHO), the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the World Bank, and IFPRI.

3. The 100 Village Survey, supported by UNICEF and carried out in July 1997 and August 1998 by the Central Bureau of Statistics, interviewed households from 100 villages drawn from eight provinces.

4. SMERU, a new unit set up within the Government of Indonesia to monitor the social impacts of the crisis with support from the World Bank, conducted a Crisis Impact Survey in 1997 and 1998 - a qualitative assessment of the situation by local experts in each of the country’s 4,025 kecamatans or sub-districts.

5. Finally, the Faculty of Economics at the University of Indonesia (LPEM), supported in part by the Asian Development Bank, conducted an analysis of the government’s SUSENAS national income and expenditure data sets from 1996 and 1998.

TABLE A11.1: Social impacts of the Indonesian crisis

 

Data source/study

 

HKI: 1, 2

IFLS: 3,4

UNICEF 100 Village Survey/SMERU: 5

Crisis Impact Survey/SMERU: 6

SUSENAS/ LPEM: 7

Years

Dec. 1995-Jan. 1999 (8 rounds, rural Central Java only); June 1998-March 1999 (4 rounds, 6 areas)

Second half of 1997 and second half of 1998

June/July 1997 and August 1998

1997 and same month in 1998

1996 and 1998

Coverage

Central Java (rural sample). East Java (rural and urban), South Sulawesi (urban sample), West Nusa Tenggara (Lombok island), Jakarta (urban), West Java (rural)

(All time comparisons reported here are for the Central Java sample only)

7 of 27 provinces: Jakarta, Central Java, West Java, West Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan, South Sumatra, North Sumatra

(IFLS2+ is representative of IFLS, which is representative of 83% of population)

10 kabupaten (from over 300) in 8 of 27 provinces: West Java, Central Java, Bali, NTT, East Kalimantan, South-East Sulawesi, Riau, Lampung

Nationwide: response from each of 4,025 kecamatans

Nationwide

Percent households with no savings

Increased

       

Change in per capita consumption, overall (thousands of rupiah)

 

Mean 246→186
Median 131→129
With IFLS deflators:
Mean 246→151
Median 131→104

     

Per capita consumption, urban (thousands of rupiah)

 

Mean 319→211
Median l41→134
With IFLS deflators:
Mean 319→184
Median 141→116

Mean 673→588
Median 551→499

14 of 20 hardest-hit areas (increase in % of households selling assets to meet basic needs) are urban

 

Per capita consumption, rural (thousands of rupiah)

 

Mean 194→168
Median 127→125
With IFLS deflators:
Mean 194→128
Median 127→95

Mean 457→384
Median 407→327

13 of 20 least-affected units are rural (same measure as above)

 

Gini coefficient

   

0.284→0.313
Urban 0.299→0.298
Rural 0.266→0.298

   

Overall poverty rate (%)

 

11.0→13.8
With IFLS deflators:
11.0→19.9

11.0→14.4
With IFLS deflators:
11.0→18.6

 

20.22→33.04
Or “adjusted”:
18.31→30.49

Urban poverty rate (%)

 

9.2→12.0
With IFLS deflators:
9.2→15.8

   

10.55→20.29
Or “adjusted”:
6.93→14.71

Rural poverty rate (%)

 

12.4→15.2
With IFLS deflators:
12.4→23.0

   

25.67→41.31
Or “adjusted”:
24.72→40.73

Worst-hit region in terms of household expenditures

 

West Java (% change in mean); South Kalimantan (% change in median)

NTT

Java

 

Budget share to food

 

70%→74%

66.2%→75.7%

   

Budget share of staple foods, urban

 

12.99%→20.61%

     

Budget share of staple foods, rural

 

30.58%→39.39%

     

Budget share of nonstaple foods, urban

 

29.2%→25.5%

     

Budget share of nonstaple foods, rural

 

29.3%→27.8%

     

Zero consumption of eggs by mothers

Up sharply

       

Consumption of meat and eggs, children under 5

Down

       

Per cent under 5 stunting

n/a

50.68→45.66
(9-year-olds)

     

Per cent under 5 underweight

Up

       

Per cent under 5 wasting

Up

8.57→5.59
(9-year-olds)

     

Per cent of adults with BMI 18

Up (mothers only)

14.05→14.69 (from 1997 to 1998 in the same communities)

     

Per cent low haemoglobin (10 mg/dL)

 

6.68→5.02 (from 1997 to 1998 in the same communities)

     

Maternal anaemia

Up

       

Childhood anaemia

Up

       

Maternal and child night blindness

Up

       

Budget share to health, urban (rural)

 

1.73%→1.49%
(1.16%→0.69%)

     

Budget share to education, urban (rural)

 

4.91%→4.51%
(2.38%→1.81%)

     

Per cent of children 7-12 not enrolled in school, mate (female)

 

5.1→6.1
(3.4→6.2)

11.2→7.9
(9.2→6.7)

   

Per cent of children receiving vitamin A capsules in 6 months before survey

Down

55.12→42.75

     

REFERENCES

1. HKI (1998) Special report: A summary of crisis-related issues and Helen Keller International initiatives for crisis-impact monitoring and assessment through nutritional surveillance systems. Jakarta: HKI.

2. Bloem M, Darnton-Hill I (1999) Micronutrient deficiencies: The first link in a chain of nutritional and health events in economic crises. HKI, Jakarta. Draft.

3. Frankenberg E, Beegle K, Thomas D, Suriastini W (1999) Health Education and Economic Crisis in Indonesia. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

4. Frankenberg E, Thomas D, Beegle K (1999) The real costs of Indonesia’s economic crisis: Preliminary findings from the Indonesia family life surveys. Labor and Population Program Working Paper Series 99-04. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

5. Poppele J, Sumarto S, Pritchett L (1999) Social impacts of the Indonesian crisis: New data and policy implications. SMERU, Jakarta. Photocopy.

6. Sumarto S, Wetterberg A, Pritchett L (1999) The social impact of the crisis in Indonesia: Results from a nationwide kecamatan survey. World Bank, Jakarta. Photocopy.

7. Ikhsan M (1999) LPEM: An Indonesian Regional Poverty Profile before and after the Crisis. Report prepared for the Asian Development Bank, Manila.

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