1. Barker DJP (1998) Mothers, Babies and Diseases in Later Life. London: Churchill Livingstone.
2. WHO (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series 854. Geneva: WHO.
3. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA, Habicht JP (1993) Epidemiological evidence for a potentiating effect of malnutrition on child mortality. American Journal of Public Health 83(8): 1130-1133.
4. Gillespie S (1997) Improving Adolescent and Maternal Nutrition: An Overview of Benefits and Options. UNICEF Staff Working Papers, Nutrition Series, 97-002. New York: UNICEF.
5. Martorell R, Scrimshaw NS (eds.) (1995) The effects of improved nutrition in early childhood: The Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) Follow-up Study. Journal of Nutrition 125(4S), April Supplement
6. Bakketeig LS (1998) Current growth standards, definitions, diagnosis and classification of fetal growth retardation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 1-4.
7. de Onis M, Blössner M, Villar J (1998) Levels and patterns of intrauterine growth retardation in developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 5-15.
8. WHO (1996) Low Birth-Weight: A Tabulation of Available Information. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, Geneva, WHO/MCH/92.2, updated version of September 1996. Geneva: WHO.
9. United Nations (1998) World Population Prospects 1950-2050 (The 1998 Revision). New York: UN.
10. Prada JA, Tsang RC (1998) Biological mechanisms of environmentally induced causes of IUGR. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 21-28.
11. Miller HC, Merritt TA (1979) Fetal Growth in Humans. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers.
12. Kramer MS (1987) Determinants of low birth weight: Methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 65(5): 663-737.
13. McGregor IA, Wilson ME, Billewicz WZ (1983) Malaria infection of the placenta in The Gambia, West Africa: Its incidence and relationship to stillbirth, birthweight and placental weight. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (London) 77(2): 232-244.
14. Kramer MS (1998) Socioeconomic determinants of intrauterine growth retardation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 29-33.
15. de Onis M, Villar J, Gülmezoglu M (1998) Nutritional interventions to prevent intrauterine growth retardation: Evidence from randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 83-93.
16. Huffman SL, Baker J, Shumann, J, Zehner ER (1999) The case for promoting multiple vitamin and mineral supplements for women of reproductive age in developing countries. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 20(4): 379-394.
17. NAS (1998) Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for Policy Makers and Public Health Workers. Washington, DC: NAS.
18. Ashworth A (1998) Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 34-42.
19. Lagerström M, Bremme K, Eneroth P, Janson C-G (1994) Long-term development for girls and boys at age 16-18 as related to birth weight and gestational age. International Journal of Psychophysiology 17: 175-180.
20. Williams S, St George IM, Silva PA (1992) Intrauterine growth retardation and blood pressure at age seven and eighteen. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45(11): 1257-1263.
21. Westwood M, Kramer MS, Munz D, Lovett JM, Watters GV (1983) Growth and development of full-term nonasphyxiated small-for-gestational-age newborns: Follow-up through adolescents. Pediatrics 71 (3): 376-382.
22. Martorell R, Ramakrishnan U, Schroeder DG, Melgar P, Neufeld L (1998) Intrauterine growth retardation, body size, body composition and physical performance in adolescence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 43 - 53.
23. Goldenberg RL, Hoffman HJ, Cliver SP (1998) Neurodevelopmental outcome of small-for-gestational-age infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 54-58.
24. Grantham-McGregor SM (1998) Small for gestational age, term babies, in the first six years of life. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52(S1): 59-64.
25. Chandra RK, Ali SK, Kutty KM, Chandra S (1977) Thymus dependent lymphocytes and delayed hypersensitivity in low birth weight infants. Biology of the Neonate 31: 15-18.
26. Victora CG, Smith PG, Vaughan JP, Nobre LC, Lombardi C, Teixeira AM, Fuchs SM, Moreira LB, Gigante LP, Barros FC (1988) Influence of birth weight on mortality from infectious diseases: A case-control study Pediatrics 81(6):807-11.
27. Cater J. Gill M (1994) The Aberdeen low birthweight study follow-up: Medical aspects, in Low Birthweight: A Medical, Psychological and Social Study, eds. Illsley R, Mitchell RG. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 191-206.
28. Godfrey KM, Barker DJP, Osmond C (1994) Disproportionate fetal growth and raised IgE concentration in adult life. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 24: 641-648
29. Phillips DIW, Cooper C, Fall C (1993) Fetal growth and autoimmune thyroid disease. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 86: 247-53.
30. Popkin BM (1998) The nutrition transition and its health implications in lower income countries. Public Health Nutrition 1: 5-21.
31. Moore SE, Cole TJ, Poskitt, EME, Sonko BJ, Whitehead RG, McGregor IA, Prentice AM (1997) Season of birth predicts mortality in rural Gambia. Nature 338: 434.
32. WHO (2000) Working group on the growth reference protocol and WHO task force on methods for the natural regulation of fertility growth patterns of breastfed infants in seven countries. Acta Paediatrica 89: 215-222.
33. WHO (1997) Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb. Geneva: WHO.
34. WHO (2000) Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition: Forecast of Trends. Document WHO/NHD/00.3. Geneva: WHO.
35. ACC/SCN (1997) Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
36. Smith LC, Haddad L (2000) Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Cross-Country Analysis. Research Report 111. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
37. Ogden CL, Troiano RP, Briefel RR, Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Johnson CL (1997) Prevalence of overweight among preschool children in the United States, 1971 through 1994. Pediatrics 99(4): e1.
38. Martorell R, Khan LK, Hughes ML, Grummer-Strawn LM (1998) Obesity in Latin American women and children. Journal of Nutrition 128(9): 1964-1473.
39. de Onis M, Blössner M. (Forthcoming) Overweight prevalence and trends among preschool children in developing countries.
40. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD and Dietz, WH (1997) Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. The New England Journal of Medicine 337: 869-873.
41. Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Freedman DS, William-son DP, Byers T (1993) Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Preventive Medicine 22: 167-177.
42. Bengoa JM (1971) Significance of malnutrition and prioritization for its prevention, national development, and planning, in Proceedings of an International Conference Held at Cambridge, MA, USA.
43. Habicht JP, Martorell R, Yarbrough C, Malina R, Klein RE (1979) Height and weight standards for preschool children: Are there really ethnic differences in growth potentials? The Lancet 1: 611-615.
44. Martorell R, Kettel Khan L, Schroeder DG (1994) Reversibility of stunting: Epidemiological findings in children from developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (Suppl. 1): S45-S57.
45. Adair L (1999) Filipino children exhibit catch-up growth from age 2 to 12 years. Journal of Nutrition 129(6): 1140-1148.
46. Méndez MA, Adair LS (1999) Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in later childhood. Journal of Nutrition 129(8): 1555-1562.
47. Miller J, Marek T (1996) Class Action: Improving School Performance in the Developing World through Better Health and Nutrition. Washington, DC: World Bank.
48. Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Walker SP, Himes JH (1991) Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation and mental development of stunted children: The Jamaican Study. The Lancet 388: 1-5
49. INCAP (1987) Memorias, II Seminario-Taller Subregional. Aporte de los Censos de Talla de Escolares a los Sistemas de Vigilancia Alimentario-Nutricional, Antigua, Guatemala, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. Guatemala: INCAP.
50. Tacsan L (1999) Resultados del Censo de Talla en Escolares de Primer Grado 1997. San José, Costa Rica: Ministry of Health.
51. Delgado H, Palma P, Fischer M (1991) The use of the height census of schoolchildren in Central America and Panama. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 13(1): 17-19.
52. Belize (1996) National Height Census of School Children in Belize. Belmopan: Ministry of Education.
53. El Salvador (1988) Primer Censo Nacional de Talla de Escolares de Primer Grado de El Salvador. San Salvador: Ministerio de Educación, Ministerio de Salud y Asistencia Social.
54. Ecuador (1992) Primer Censo Nacional de Talla de los Niños Ecuatorianos de Primer Grado. Quito: Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura.
55. Honduras (1998) Los Censes de Talla en Honduras, Una Revisión de la Experiencia. Presidencia de la República. Tegucigalpa: Programa de Asignaciones Familiares.
56. Nicaragua (1986) Primer Censo Nacional de Talla en Escolares de Primer Grado de Primaria. Managua: Ministerio de Educación, Ministerio de Salud, Programa Alimentario Nicaraguense.
57. Panama (1982, 1986, 1998) Censes de Talla de Escolares de Primer Grado. Panama City: Ministerio de Educación, Ministerio de Salud.
58. Peru (1993) I Censo Nacional de Talla en Escolares. Lima: Ministerio de Educación.
59. Mexico (1993) Primer Censo Nacional de Talla en Niños de Primer Grado de Primaria. Mexico City: Secretaria de Educación Pública de México.
60. República Dominicana (1995) Primer Censo Nacional de Talla en Escolares de Primer Grado de Primaria. Santo Domingo: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones en Salud Materno-Infantil, Secretaria de Estado de Educación, Bellas Artes y Cultos, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo.
61. PCD (1998) The anthropometric status of school children in five countries in the Partnership for Child Development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 149-158.
62. Brasel J (1982) Changes in body composition during adolescence, in Adolescent Nutrition, ed. Winick M. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
63. Kanade AN (1994) Studies in Inter and Intra Individual Variations in Growth and Dietary Intake of Adolescents. PhD thesis. Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India.
64. Kulin HE, Bwibo N, Mutie D, Santner S (1982) The effect of chronic childhood malnutrition on pubertal growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 527-36.
65. Eveleth PB, Tanner JM (1990) Worldwide Variation in Human Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
66. Gopalan C (1987) Motherhood in early adolescence, in Combating Undernutrition, Special Publication Series 3. New Delhi: NFI, 304-305.
67. ICMR (1990) A National Collaborative Study of Identification of High Risk Families, Mothers and Outcome of Their Offspring with Particular Reference to the Problem of Maternal Nutrition, Low Birth Weight, Perinatal and Infant Morbidity and Mortality in Rural and Urban Slum Communities. New Delhi: ICMR.
68. Senderowitz J (1995) Adolescent Health: Reassessing the Passage to Adulthood. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 272. Washington DC: World Bank.
69. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Ances IG (1990) Maternal growth during pregnancy and decreased infant birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 790-93.
70. Olson CM (1987) Pregnancy in adolescents: A cause for nutritional concern? Professional Perspectives 1: 1 - 5.
71. WHO (1989) WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF Statement: The Reproductive Health of Adolescents. Geneva: WHO.
72. Kurz KM, Johnson-Welch C (1994) The Nutrition and Lives of Adolescents in Developing Countries: Findings from the Nutrition of Adolescent Girls. Washington, DC: ICRW
73. Martorell R (1996) Undernutrition during pregnancy and early childhood and its consequences for cognitive and behavioral development. Paper prepared for the World Bank’s conference “Early Childhood Development: Investing in the Future,” Atlanta, GA, 8-9 April 1996.
74. Ramachandran P (1989) Nutrition in pregnancy, in Women and Nutrition in India, Special Publication Series 5, ed. Gopalan C, Suminder K. New Delhi: NFI, 153-193.
75. ACC/SCN (1992) Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Volume I: Global and Regional Results. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
76. Shetty PS, James WP (1994) Body mass index: A measure of chronic energy deficiency in adults. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 56: 1-57. Rome: FAO.
77. Rotimi C, Okosun I, Johnson L, Owoaje E, Lawoyin T, Asuzu M, Kaufman J, Adeyemo A, Cooper R (1999) The distribution and mortality impact of chronic energy deficiency among adult nigerian men and women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 734-739.
78. James WPT, Mascie-Taylor CGN, Norgan NG, Bistrian BR, Shetty PS, Ferro-Luzzi A (1994) The value of MUAC in assessing chronic energy deficiency in Third World adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 883-894.
79. Pi-Sunyer FX (1991) Health implications of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (6 Suppl.): 1595S-1603S.
80. World Cancer Research Fund (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC: WCRF.
81. Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk ER, Williamson DF, Thun MJ, Wood JL (1998) The effect of age on the association between body-mass-index and mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine 338: 1-7
82. Monteiro CA, Mondini L, Medeiros de Souza AL, Popkin BM (1995) The nutrition transition in Brazil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49: 105-113.
83. Popkin BM, Doak C (1998) The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon. Nutrition Reviews 56: 106 - 114.
84. Monteiro CA, Benicio MH, Conde WL, Popkin BM (In press) Shifting obesity trends in Brazil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
85. Demographic and Health Surveys (1999) http://www.macroint.com/dhs/Calverton, MD: Macro International Inc.
86. Manandhar MC (1999) Undernutrition and impaired functional ability amongst elderly slum dwellers in Mumbai, India. PhD thesis, University of London.
87. Pieterse SG (1999) Nutritional vulnerability of older refugees. PhD thesis, University of London.
88. Chilima DM (1998) Nutritional status and functional ability of older people in rural Malawi. PhD thesis, University of London.
89. Pieterse S, Manandhar M, Ismail S (1998) The nutritional status of older Rwandan refugees. Public Health Nutrition 1: 259-264
90. Chilima DM and Ismail SJ (1998) Anthropometric characteristics of older people in rural Malawi. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52: 643-649.
91. Stookey JD, Fengying Zhai, Popkin BM (In press) Diets higher in energy and protein slow Sarcopenia: Evidence from China. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
1. ACC/SCN (1997) Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
2. Bothwell TH, Charlton RW, Cook JD, Finch CA (1979) Iron Metabolism in Man. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
3. CEC (1993) Report of the Scientific Committee for Food, 31st Series, Chapter 25, 177-190.
4. Gillespie S, Johnston JL (1998) Expert Consultation on Anemia Determinants and Interventions. Ottawa: Micronutrient Initiative.
5. Yip, R. (1994) Iron deficiency: Contemporary scientific issue and international programmatic approaches. Journal of Nutrition 124: 1479S-1490S.
6. Beaton G, McCabe G (1999) Efficacy of Intermittent Iron Supplementation in the Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Developing Countries: An Analysis of Experience. Final report to the Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa.
7. Ross J, Horton S (1998) Economic Consequences of Iron Deficiency. Ottawa: Micronutrient Initiative.
8. UNICEF/UNU/WHO/MI (1999) Preventing Iron Deficiency in Women and Children: Technical Consensus on Key Issues. Technical Workshop, October 7-9, 1998. Boston and Ottawa: International Nutrition Foundation and MI.
9. WHO (1998) Global Database on Anaemia. Geneva: WHO.
10. Kurz KM, Johnson-Welch C (1994) The Nutrition and Lives of Adolescents in Developing Countries: Findings from the Nutrition of Adolescent Girls. Washington DC: ICRW
11. Gillespie S (1998) Major Issues in the Control of Iron Deficiency. Ottawa: Micronutrient Initiative/UNICEF.
12. Bouis H (1999) Personal communication. IFPRI, Washington DC.
13. Hetzel BS (1983) Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication. The Lancet 2: 1126-1129.
14. WHO (in preparation) Consultation on Indicators for Assessing Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Their Control Through Salt Iodization (4 to 6 May 1998). Geneva: WHO.
15. Delange F (1999) What do we call a goiter? European Journal of Endocrinology 140: 486-488.
16. WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (1999) Progress Towards the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). WHO/NHD/99.4. Geneva: WHO.
17. ICCIDD (1998) China advances towards IDD elimination. IDD Newsletter 14(4): 50-54.
18. Delange F, de Benoist B, Alnwick D (1999) Risks of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism after correction of iodine deficiency by iodized salt. Thyroid 9(6): 545-556.
19. WHO (1996) Indicators for Assessing Vitamin A Deficiency and Their Application in Monitoring and Evaluating Intervention Programmes. WHO/NUT/96.10. Geneva: WHO.
20. Beaton GH, Martorell R, Aronson KJ, Edmonston B, McCabe G, Ross AC, Harvey B (1993) Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries. ACC/SCN State-of-the-Arts Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 13. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
21. WHO/UNICEF (1995) Global Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency. Micronutrient Deficiency Information System Working Paper 2. Geneva: WHO.
22. MI/UNICEF/Tulane University (1998) Progress in Controlling Vitamin A Deficiency. Ottawa: Micronutrient Initiative.
23. UNICEF (1998) The State of the World’s Children 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
24. WHO (1998) Randomised trial to assess benefits and safety of vitamin A supplementation linked to immunization in early infancy. The Lancet 352: 1257-1263.
25. HKI (1997) The Central Java Project: Maternal Post-Partum Vitamin A Supplementation, Increased Intake of Vitamin A-Rich Foods and Early Childhood Survival in Central Java. Special Report Series, Jakarta: HKI.
26. Castenmiller JJM, West CE (1998) Bioavailability and bio-conversion of carotenoids. Annual Review of Nutrition 18: 19-38.
27. UNICEF/MI/WHO/CIDA/USAID (1998) Vitamin A Global Initiative: A Strategy for Acceleration of Progress in Combating Vitamin A Deficiency. Consensus of an Informal Technical Consultation convened by UNICEF in association with MI, WHO, CIDA and USAID.
28. Suharno D, Muhilal (1996) Vitamin A and nutritional anaemia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 17(1): 7-10.
29. Mejia LA, Arroyave G (1982) The effect of vitamin A fortification of sugar on iron metabolism in preschool children in Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 87-93.
30. Muhilal, Permaesih D, Idjradinata YR, Muherdiyantiningsih, Karyadi D (1988) Vitamin A-fortified monosodium glutamate and health, growth and survival of children: A controlled field trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 1271-1276.
31. Huffman SL, Baker J, Shumann J, Zehner ER (1998) The Case for Promoting Multiple Vitamin/Mineral Supplements for Women of Reproductive Age in Developing Countries. LINKAGES Project. Washington DC: AED.
1. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G, Lesson-Payne C (1992) Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. The Lancet 339: 261-264.
2. Pollack JI (1994) Long-term associations with infant feeding in a clinically advantaged population of babies. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 36: 429-440.
3. Green LC, Lucas A, Livingstone MBE, Harland PA, Baker BA (1995) Relationship between early diet and subsequent cognitive performance during adolescence. Biochemistry and Social Transaction 23: 376S.
4. Davis MK (1998) Review of the evidence for an association between infant feeding and childhood cancer. International Journal of Cancer 78(S11): 29-33.
5. von Kries R, Koletzko, B, Sauerwald T, von Mutius E, Barnert D, Grunert V, von Voss H (1999) Breast feeding and obesity: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 319: 147-150.
6. Koletzo A, Sherman P, Corey M, Griffiths A, Smith C (1989) Role of infant feeding practices in development of Crohn’s disease in childhood. British Medical Journal 298: 1617-1618.
7. Saarinen DM, Kajosarri M (1995) Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: Prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. The Lancet 346: 1065-1069.
8. Newcomb PA Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Clapp RW, Burke D, Willet WC, Mac-Mahon B (1994) Lactation and a reduced risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 330(2): 81-87.
9. Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Vena JE, Moysich KB, Muti P, Laughlin R, Nemoto T, Graham S (1997) Lactation history and breast cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology 146(11): 932-938.
10. Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyre J, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group (1992) Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: Collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 136: 1184-1203.
11. Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Graham S, Laughlin R, Vena JE, Bandera E, Muti P, Swanson M, Nemoto T (1994) Exposure to breastmilk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology 5(3): 324-331.
12. WHO/University of California, Davis (1998) Complementary Feeding of Young Children in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Scientific Knowledge. Geneva: WHO.
13. Hoyle B, Yunus M, Chen L (1980) Breast-feeding and food intake among children with acute diarrhoeal disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33: 2365-2371.
14. Brown KH, Stallings RY, de Kanashiro CH, López de Romana G, Black RE (1990) Effects of common illnesses on infants’ energy intakes from breast milk and other foods during longitudinal community based studies in Huascar (Lima), Peru. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52: 1005-1013.
15. Dicken KL, Brown KH, Fagbule D et al. (1990) Effect of diarrhea on dietary intake by infants and young children in rural villages in Kwara State, Nigeria. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44: 307-317.
16. Victora CG, Smith PG, Vaughan JP, Nobre LC, Lombardi C, Teixeira AM, Fuchs SM, Moreira LB, Gigante LP, Barros FC (1987) Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil. The Lancet iii: 319-322.
17. Brown KH, Black RE, de Romana GL, de Kanashiro HC (1989) Infant-feeding practices and their relationship with diarrheal and other diseases in Huascar (Lima), Peru. Pediatrics 83: 31-40.
18. Popkin BM, Adair L, Akin JS, Black R, Briscoe J, Flieger W (1990) Breast-feeding and diarrheal morbidity. Pediatrics 86(6): 874-882.
19. Yoon PW, Black RE, Monthulton LH, Becker S (1996) Effect of not breastfeeding on the risk of diarrhea and respiratory mortality in children under 2 years of age in Metro Cebu, The Philippines. American Journal of Epidemiology 143: 1142-1148.
20. WHO (2000) Collaborative study team on the role of breastfeeding and the prevention of infant mortality. The Lancet (In press).
21. Caulfield LE, Huffman SL, Piwoz EG (1999) Interventions to improve intake of complementary foods by infants 6 to 12 months of age in developing countries: Impact on growth and on the prevalence of malnutrition and potential contribution to child survival. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 20: 183-200.
22. Lutter CK, Mora JO, Habicht JP, Rasmussen KM, Rob-son DS, Herrera MG (1990) Age-specific responsiveness of weight and length to nutritional supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51: 359-364.
23. Schroeder DG, Martorell R, Rivera JA, Ruel MT, Habicht J-P (1995) Age differences in the impact of nutritional supplementation on growth. Journal of Nutrition 125 (4 suppl): 1051S-1059S.
24. Lutter CK, Mora JO, Habicht JP, Rasmussen KM, Robson DS, Sellers SG, Super CM, Herrera GM (1989) Nutritional supplementation: Effects on child stunting because of diarrhea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50: 1-5.
25. Lutter CK, Huffman SL (2000) Processed complementary foods in Latin America. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Special Issue, March 2000.
26. WHO (1995) Weekly Epidemiological Record 17: 119-120.
27. Cohen RJ, Brown KJ, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG (1994) Effects of age of introduction of complementary foods on infant breast-milk intake, total energy intake, and growth: A randomized intervention study in Honduras. The Lancet 334: 288-293.
28. Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL (1999) Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: A randomized intervention study in Honduras. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69(4): 679-686.
29. Lutter CK (2000). Breastfeeding promotion: Is its effectiveness supported by scientific evidence and global changes in breastfeeding behaviors?, in Short and Long Term Effects of Breastfeeding on Infant Health, ed. Koletzo B, Hernell O, Michaelsen K. New York: Plenum Press. (In press).
30. ACC/SCN (1998) Nutrition and HIV/AIDS, SCN News 17 (December): 3-23.
31. WHO (1998) HIV and Infant Feeding. WHO/FRH/NUT/CHD 98.1 Geneva: WHO.
32. Coutsoudis A, Pillary K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia, HM (1999) Influence of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa: A prospective cohort study. The Lancet 354: 471-476.
33. Willumsen JF, Fiteau SM, Coutsoudis A, Uebel KE, Tomkins AM (2000). Subclinical mastitis as a risk factor for mother-infant HIV transmission, in Short and Long Term Effects of Breastfeeding on Infant Health, ed. Koletzo B, Hernell O, Michaelsen K. New York: Plenum Press. (In press).
34. Haggerty PA, Rutstein SO (1999) Breastfeeding and Complementary Infant Feeding, and the Postpartum Effects of Breastfeeding. Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies 30. Calverton, MA: Macro International.
35. Lutter CK (2000) Opportunities for Improving Young Child Nutrition in the Americas. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.
36. Black RE, de Romana GL, Brown KH, Brazo NB, Bazalar OG, Kanashiro HC (1989) Incidence and etiology of infantile diarrhea and major routes of transmission in Huascar, Peru. American Journal of Epidemiology 129: 785-799.
37. Engle PL, Lhotska L (1999) The role of care in programmatic actions for nutrition: Designing programmes involving care. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 20(1): 121-135.
38. Ruel MT, Levin CE, Armar-Klemesu M, Maxwell D (1999) Good care practices can mitigate the negative effects of poverty and low maternal schooling on children’s nutritional status: Evidence from Accra. World Development 27(11): 1993-2009.
39. Armar-Klemesu M, Ruel M, Maxwell DG, Levin CE, Morris SS (Forthcoming) The constraints to good child care practices in Accra: Implications for programs. IFPRI, Washington, DC. (In revision for the Journal of Nutrition).
40. Grummer-Strawn LM (1996) The effect of changes in population characteristics on breastfeeding trends in fifteen developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology 25: 94-102.
41. WHO (1981) The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Geneva: WHO.
42. Taylor A (1998) Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Prevalence in four countries. British Medical Journal 316: 1117-1122.
43. WHO (1992) The Global Criteria for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, in Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Part II: Hospital Level Implementation. Geneva: WHO/UNICEF.
44. WHO (1999) Nutrition for Health and Development: Progress and Prospects on the Eve of the 21st Century. WHO/NHD/99.9. Geneva: WHO.
45. Lutter CK, Pérez-Escamilla R, Segall A, Sanghvi T, Teruya K, Wickham C (1997) The effectiveness of a hospital-based program to promote exclusive breastfeeding among low-income women in Brazil. American Journal of Public Health 87: 659-663.
46. Morrow AL, Guerrero ML, Shults J, Calva JJ, Lutter C, Bravo J, Ruiz-Palacios G, Morrow RC, Butterfoss FD (1999) Efficacy of home-based peer counselling to promote exclusive breastfeeding: A randomized controlled trial, The Lancet 353: 1226-1231.
47. Haider R, Kabir I, Ashworth A, Huttly SRA (2000) Community-based peer counselors increase exclusive breast-feeding practices in Dhaka, in Short and Long Term Effects of Breastfeeding on Infant Health, ed. Koletzo B, Hernell O, Michaelsen K. New York: Plenum Press. (In press).
48. Horton S, Sanghvi T, Phillips M, Fiedler J, Pérez-Escamilla R, Lutter C, Rivera A, Segall-Correa A (1996) Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health. Health Policy 11: 156-168.
1. Horton S (1999) Opportunities for Investments in Nutrition in Low Income Asia. Paper prepared for RETA 5671. Manila: ADB.
2. Messer E, Cohen MJ, D’Costa J (1998) Food from Peace: Breaking the Links between Conflict and Hunger. 2020 Vision, Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper 24. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
3. Smith LC, Haddad L (2000) Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Cross-Country Analysis. Research Report 111. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
4. Hoddinott J, Baulch B. (Forthcoming) Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries. Journal of Development Studies.
5. Méndez MA, Adair LS (1999) Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in later childhood. Journal of Nutrition 129(8): 1555-1562,
6. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ (1998) Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. British Medical Journal 317(7171): 1481-1487.
7. Gardner JM, Grantham-McGregor SM, Himes J, Chang S (1999) Behaviour and development of stunted and non-stunted Jamaican children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40(5): 819-827.
8. Grantham-McGregor SM, Walker SP, Chang SM, Powell CA (1997) Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development in stunted Jamaican children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66(2): 247-253.
9. Glewwe P, Jacoby H (1995) An economic analysis of delayed primary school enrollment in a low income country: The role of childhood nutrition. Review of Economics and Statistics 77(1): 156-169.
10. Alderman H, Behrman J, Lavy V, Menon R (1997) Child Nutrition, Child Health and School Enrollment. Policy Research Working Paper 1700. Washington DC: World Bank.
11. Glewwe P, Jacoby H, King E (1999) Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: A longitudinal analysis. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 68. IFPRI, Washington DC.
12. Tontisirin K, Gillespie S (2000) Linking community-based nutrition programs with service delivery. Asian Development Review (forthcoming).
13. Isham J, Narayan D, Pritchett L (1995) Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data. World Bank Economic Review 9(2): 175-200.
14. Adato M, Haddad L, Horner D, Ravjee N, Haywood R (1999) The performance of labour-intensive public works in Western Cape Province, South Africa. IFPRI, Washington, DC.
15. Zeller M (1998) Determinants of repayment performance in credit groups: The role of program design, intra-group risk pooling, and social cohesion. Economic Development and Cultural Change 46 (3): 599-620.
16. Maluccio J, Haddad L, May J (1999) Social capital and income generation in South Africa, 1993-1998. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 71. IFPRI, Washington, DC.
17. World Bank (1999) Nutrition Programming at the Community Level in Sri Lanka: Changing Behavior and Reducing Serious Malnutrition. Washington, DC: World Bank.
18. ADB (1999) Asian Development Outlook. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
19. Noland M, Liu L, Robinson S, Wang Z (1998) Global Economic Effects of the Asian Currency Devaluations. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
20. Walker WC (1998) Contagion: How the Asian Crisis Spread. Briefing Notes 3. Economics and Development Resource Center. Manila: ADB.
21. Ranis G, Stewart F (1999) The Asian crisis and human development. IDS Bulletin 30(1): 108-119.
22. Frankenberg E, Thomas D, Beegle K (1999) The real costs of Indonesia’s economic crisis: Preliminary findings from the Indonesia family life surveys. Labor and Population Program Working Paper Series 99-04. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
23. Bloem M, Darnton-Hill I (1999) Micronutrient deficiencies: The first link in a chain of nutritional and health events in economic crises. HKL, Jakarta. (Draft).
24. Frankenberg E, Beegle K, Thomas D, Suriastini W (1999) Health Education and Economic Crisis in Indonesia. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
25. The Economist (1999) December 11.
26. Kaferstein F, Motarjemi Y, Bettcher DW (1997) Food-home disease control: A transnational challenge, Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(4): 503-510.
27. WHO (1999) Nutrition for Health and Development: Progress and Prospects on the Eve of the 21st Century. WHO/NHD/99.9. Geneva: WHO.
28. Murray C, López A (1996) The Global Burden of Disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press for WHO, Harvard School of Public Health, and the World Bank.
29. Levin CE, Maxwell DG, Armar-Klemesu M, Ruel MT, Morris SS, Ahiadeke C (1999) Working women in an urban setting: Traders, vendors, and food security in Accra. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 66. IFPRI, Washington, DC.
30. WHO (1996) Essential Safety Requirements for Street-Vended Foods. WHO/FNU/FOS/96.7. Geneva: WHO.
31. World Bank (1998) Knowledge for Development. World Development Report 1998/99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
32. Bedi AS (1999) The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Economic Development. Discussion Paper 7. Bonn: Center for Development Research, University of Bonn.
33. Slack A (1998) Food and Nutrition Security Data on the World Wide Web. Technical Guide for Operationalizing Household Food Security in Development Projects Number 2. Washington DC: IFPRI.
34. Friedman TL (1999) The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
35. World Bank (1999) Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Progress in Fiscal 1998. Washington DC: World Bank.
36. Sen A (1996). Freedoms and needs, in International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals, ed. Steiner HJ, Alston P. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1128-1132.
37. UNDP (1998) Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
38. United Nations (1998) World Urbanization Prospects: The 1996 Revision. Department for Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division, ST/ESA/SER.A/170. New York: UN.
39. Haddad L, Ruel MT, and Garrett J (1999) Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? World Development 27(11): 1891-1904.
40. Ruel MT, Levin CE, Armar-Klemesu M, Maxwell D (1999) Good care practices can mitigate the negative effects of poverty and low maternal schooling on children’s nutritional status: Evidence from Accra. World Development 27(11): 1993-2009.
41. Popkin BM (1999) Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Development 27(11): 1905-1916.
42. UNAIDS/WHO (1998) Report an the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS/WHO.
43. ACC/SCN (1998) Nutrition and HIV/AIDS, SCN News 17 (December): 3-23.
44. Lhotska L (1999) Infant feeding in the age of AIDS: A decade-long evolution of policy and practice. SCN News 17:15-16.
45. World Bank (1997). Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. A World Bank Policy Research Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
46. UNDP (1996) Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
47. Carney D (1998) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods. London: Department for International Development.
48. ACC/SCN (1999) Adequate food: A human right. SCN News 18 (July): 11-90.
49. Jonsson U (1999) Presentation made to ACC/SCN Working Group on Nutrition, Ethics, and Human Rights, Geneva, April.
1. ACC/SCN (1997-1999) Reports on the Nutritional Situation of Refugees and Internally Displaced Populations (RNIS). Geneva: ACC/SCN.
2. UNHCR (1999) UNHCR 1998 Statistical Overview. Geneva: UNHCR.
3. UNHCR (1997) The Stale of the World’s Refugees 1997-98: A Humanitarian Agenda. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
4. Norwegian Refugee Council (1998) Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. London: Earthscan Publications.
5. USCR (1999) World Refugee Survey 1999. Washington DC: USCR.
6. Seaman J (1999) Malnutrition in emergencies: How can we do better and where do the responsibilities lie? Disasters 23(4).
7. WFP (1999) World Food Programme Food and Nutrition Hand-book: Draft. Rome: WFP
8. Young H (1999) Public nutrition in emergencies: An overview of debate, dilemmas and decision making. Disasters 23(4).
9. IFRC (1994) The Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGO’s in Disaster Relief. Geneva: IFRC.
10. Sphere (1998) The Sphere Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Geneva: Sphere.
11. Gostelow L (1999) The Sphere project: The implications of operationalising humanitarian principles and codes. Disasters 23 (4).
12. Mitchell J, Doane D (1999) An ombudsman for humanitarian assistance? Disasters 23(2): 115-124.
13. Christoplos I (1999) Humanitarianism, pluralism and ombudsmen: Do the pieces fit? Disasters 23 (2): 125-138.
14. Leader N (1998) Proliferating principles: Or how to sup with the devil without being eaten. Disasters 22(4): 288-308.
15. WFP (1991) Food Aid in Emergencies. Rome: WFP.
16. Borton J (1998) The Slate of the International Humanitarian System. Briefing Paper. London: ODI.
17. Maxwell D (1999) Programmes in chronically vulnerable areas: Challenges and lessons learned. CARE, Atlanta, GA.
18. Boss L, Toole M, Yip R (1994) Assessments of mortality, morbidity, and nutritional status in Somalia in the 1991-1992 famine. Journal of the American Medical Association 272: 371-376.
19. Briend A, Golden MH, Grellety Y, Prudhon C, Hailey P (1995) Use of mid-upper arm circumference for nutritional screening of refugees. The Lancet 345(8957, April): 1119-1120.
20. Young H, Jaspars S (1996) The Relationship Between Malnutrition and Mortality in Emergencies: Do We Have All the Answers? London: ODA, Health and Population Division.
21. Collins S (1995) The limit of human adaptation to starvation. Nature Medicine 1: 810-814.
22. Salama P, Collins S (1999) An ongoing omission: Adolescent and adult malnutrition in famine situations. ENN (Emergency Nutrition Network) Field Exchange 6.
23. FAO (1997) FAO’s Emergency Activities. Rome: FAO.
24. GIEWS (1996) Guidelines for Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions, Global Information and Early Warning System. Rome: FAO.
25. Young H, Jaspars S (1995) Nutrition Matters: People, Food and Famine. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
26. Boudreau T (1998) The Food Economy Approach: A Framework for Understanding Rural Livelihoods. ODI Relief and Rehabilitation Network. London: ODI.
27. MSF (1997) Refugee Health: An Approach to Emergency Situations. London: Macmillan for MSF.
28. UNHCR (1999) UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies, 2nd ed. Geneva: UNHCR.
29. Karim A, Duffield M, Jaspars S, Benini A, Macrae J, Bradbury M, Johnson D, Larbi G, Hendrie B (1996) Operation Life line Sudan: A Review. OLS.
30. WFP/UNHCR (1997) Memorandum of Understanding on The Joint Working Arrangements for Refugee, Returnee and Internally Displaced Persons Feeding Operations. Rome and Geneva: WFP and UNHCR.
31. Jaspars S, Young H (1995) General Food Distribution in Emergencies: From Nutritional Needs to Political Priorities. Good Practice Review 3. Relief and Rehabilitation Network. London: ODI.
32. WFP (1998) Gender Mainstreaming in WFP: An Integrated Assessment. Rome: WFP.
33. Jaspars S, Shoham J (1999) Is it possible to target the vulnerable? With special reference to community based targeting. Disasters 23(4).
34. MSF (1995) Nutrition Guidelines, 1st ed. Paris: MSF.
35. Lusty T, Diskett P (1977) OXFAM’s Practical Guide to Selective Feeding Programmes. Oxfam Practical Guide No 1. Oxford: Oxfam, Health Unit.
36. de Ville de Goyet C, Seaman J, Geijer U (1978) The Management of Nutritional Emergencies in Large Populations. Geneva: WHO.
37. WFP/UNHCR (1998) WFP/UNHCR Guidelines for Selective Feeding Programmes in Emergency Situations. Rome and Geneva: WFP and UNHCR.
38. WHO (1999) Inventory of Applied Health Research in Emergency Settings, 1st ed. Geneva: WHO.
39. Golden MH (1995) Severe malnutrition, in The Oxford Textbook of Medicine, ed. Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG, Warell DA, Vol 1, 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1287-1297.
40. Briend A, Lacsala R, Prudhon C, Mounier B, Grellety Y, Golden MH (1999) Ready-to-use therapeutic food for treatment of marasmus. The Lancet 353 (9166, May): 1767-1768.
41. Prudhon C, Golden MH, Briend A, Mary JY (1997) A model to standardise mortality of severely malnourished children using nutritional status on admission to therapeutic feeding centres. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51(11): 771-777.
42. WFP/UNHCR (1997) WFP/UNHCR Guidelines for Estimating Food and Nutritional Needs in Emergencies. Rome and Geneva: WFP and UNHCR.
43. Gullick C (In press) Wild foods of southern Sudan database. Rome: WFP.
44. Mears C, Young H (1998) Acceptability and use of cereal-based foods in refugee camps: Case-studies from Nepal, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Oxfam Working Paper. Oxford: Oxfam Health Unit.
45. McGrath M (1999) Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Recurring Challenges. SCF/ICH Report. London: SCF.
46. Forsythe V (1999) Report of WHO Infant Feeding Consultancy to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albania. Geneva: WHO.
47. UNICEF (1997) The Care Initiative: Assessment, Analysis, and Action to Improve Care for Nutrition. New York: UNICEF.
48. WHO (1999) Management of Severe Malnutrition: A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers. Geneva: WHO.
49. Long J, O’Loughlin R, Borrel A (1998) Caring for unaccompanied children under difficult circumstances. ENN (Emergency Nutrition Network) Field Exchange (4): 4 - 5.
50. WHO (1997) Applied Health Research Priorities in Complex Emergencies. Geneva: WHO.
51. WHO (1997) Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb. Geneva: WHO.
52. Beaton G, Kelly A, Kevany J, Martorell R, Mason, J (1990) Appropriate Uses of Anthropometric Indices in Children. Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper 7. Geneva: ACC/SCN.
53. Golden MH (1995) Specific deficiencies versus growth failure: Type I and Type II nutrients. SCN News 12: 0-14.
54. UNICEF (1999) Report on the nutritional situation in Burundi. UNICEF, New York.
55. Macrae J (1998) The death of humanitarianism? An anatomy of the attack. Disasters 22(4): 309-17.
56. Pugh M (1998) Military intervention and humanitarian action: Trends and issues. Disasters 22(4): 339-51.
57. WFP (1999) Notes from an Interagency Workshop on Assessment and Targeting in Ongoing Refugee Situations. Rome: WFP.
58. James WPT, Mascie-Taylor CGN, Norgan NG, Bistrian BR, Shetty PS, Ferro-Luzzi A (1994) The value of MUAC in assessing chronic energy deficiency in Third World adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 883-894.
[Ukrainian] [English] [Russian]