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close this bookProspects - Quarterly Review of Education, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1995 (Issue 93) - Science Teaching for Sustainable Development (UNESCO; 1995; 152 pages)
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View the documentPeer abuse or bullying at school: basic facts and a school-based intervention programme - Dan Olweus
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Peer abuse or bullying at school: basic facts and a school-based intervention programme - Dan Olweus

Dan Olweus (Sweden)

Ph.D. from the University of Umå in 1969. From 1970 to the present, professor of psychology at the University of Bergen, Norway. He has published extensively in English, including Development of antisocial and prosocial behaviour (co-editor, 1986) and Bullying at school: what we know and what we can do (1993); the latter book has been published in ten European countries. Dr Olweus was given an award for ‘outstanding research’ by the International Society for Research on Aggression, has lectured extensively at congresses and universities and is recognized as a leading authority on bully/victim problems.

Bullying among schoolchildren is certainly a very old and well-known phenomenon. Though many are acquainted with the problem, it was not until fairly recently-in the early 1970s-that the phenomenon was made the object of more systematic research (Olweus, 1973; Olweus, 1978). For a number of years, these efforts were largely confined to Scandinavia. In the 1980s and early 1990s, however, bullying among schoolchildren also attracted attention in other countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (Olweus, 1993d; Farrington, 1993).

In my definition, a student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students. Negative actions can be carried out by physical contact, by words, or in other ways, such as making faces or vulgar gestures, and intentional exclusion from a group. In order to use the term bullying, there should also be an imbalance in strength (an asymmetric power relationship). The student who is exposed to the negative actions has difficulty defending himself or herself.

Some data on prevalence

On the basis of our surveys of more than 150,000 Norwegian and Swedish students using my Bully/Victim Questionnaire, one can estimate that some 15 % of the students in elementary and secondary/junior high schools (grades 1 to 9, roughly corresponding to ages 7 through 16) in Scandinavia were involved in bully/victim problems with some regularity (autumn 1983) as either bullies or victims (Olweus, 1993a). Approximately 9 % were victims and 7 % bullied other students. Very likely, these figures represent underestimates of the number of students involved in these problems during an entire school year.

Bullying is thus a considerable problem in Scandinavian schools, a problem that affects a very large number of students. Recent data (in large measure collected with my Bully/Victim Questionnaire) from a number of other countries indicate that this problem certainly also exists outside Scandinavia and with similar or even higher prevalence rates (for references, see Farrington, 1993; Olweus, 1994).

There are many more boys than girls who bully other students, and boys are also somewhat more often victims of bullying. However, there occurs a good deal of bullying among girls as well, but girls typically use more subtle and indirect ways of harassment. A good deal of bullying is also carried out by boys toward girls and by older students toward younger ones.

Characteristics of typical victims and bullies

Briefly, the typical victims are more anxious and insecure than students in general. Further, they are often cautious, sensitive and quiet. Victims suffer from low self-esteem, they have a negative view of themselves and their situation. If they are boys, they are likely to be physically weaker than boys in general.

I have labelled this type of victim the passive or submissive victim, as opposed to the far less common provocative victim (Olweus, 1978; Olweus, 1993d). In summary, it seems that the behaviour and attitude of the passive/submissive victims signal to others that they are insecure and worthless individuals who will not retaliate if they are attacked or insulted. In a nutshell, the typical victims are characterized by an anxious and submissive reaction pattern combined (in the case of boys) with physical weakness. Follow-up data indicate that the former victims of bullying at school tended to be more depressed and had lower self-esteem at the age of 23 than their non-victimized peers (Olweus, 1993b). The results also clearly suggested that this was a consequence of the earlier, persistent victimization which thus had left its scars on their minds.

A distinctive characteristic of typical bullies is their aggression toward peers. This is, indeed, implied in the definition of a bully. But bullies tend to be aggressive toward adults as well, both teachers and parents. They are often characterized by impulsivity and a strong need to dominate others. They have little empathy with victims of bullying. If they are boys, they are likely to be physically stronger than boys in general, and the victims in particular.

The common assumption that bullies are basically insecure individuals under a tough surface has been tested in several of my own studies and with various methods including projective techniques and stress hormones, but received no sup- port. The empirical results pointed in fact in the opposite direction: the bullies had usually little anxiety and insecurity, or were roughly average in such dimensions.

In summary, typical bullies can be described as having an aggressive reaction pattern combined (in the case of boys) with physical strength.

Bullying can also be viewed as a component of a more general antisocial and rule-breaking (conduct-disordered) behaviour pattern. In my follow-up studies, we have found strong support for this view. Approximately 35 to 40 % of boys who were characterized as bullies in grades 6 through 9 (ages 12 to 15) had been convicted of at least three officially registered crimes by the age of 24. In contrast, this was true of only 10 % of the ‘control’ boys. Thus, as young adults, the former school bullies had a fourfold increase in relatively serious, recidivist criminality.

A question of fundamental democratic rights

The victims of bullying form a large group of students who are, to a great extent, neglected by the school. For a long time, I have argued that it is a fundamental democratic right for a child to feel safe in school and to be spared the oppression and repeated, intentional humiliation implied in bullying. No student should be afraid of going to school for fear of being harassed or degraded, and no parent should need to worry about such things happening to his or her child.

Already in 1981,1 proposed the introduction of a legal paragraph against bullying at school. At that time, there was little political support for the idea. In 1994, however, this suggestion was followed up in Sweden with a new school law paragraph including formulations that are very similar to those expressed above. In addition, the law and associated regulations place responsibility for the realization of this goal, including development of an intervention programme against bullying for the individual school, with the principal. At present, the ratification of a similar law is being discussed in Norway, and there now seems to be considerable political support for this proposal.

Effects of a school-based intervention programme

Against this background, it is now appropriate to describe briefly the effects of the intervention programme that I participated in developing, and evaluated in connection with a nationwide campaign against bully/victim problems in Norwegian schools.

Evaluation of the effects of the intervention programme was based on data from approximately 2,500 students originally belonging to 112 grade 4 to 7 classes in 42 primary and secondary/junior high schools in Bergen, Norway. The subjects of the study were followed over a period of 2.5 years.

The main findings of the analyses can be summarized as follows (Olweus, 1991; Olweus, 1993a).

- There were marked reductions-by 50 % or more-in bully/victim problems over the periods studied, with eight and twenty months of intervention, respectively. By and large, the results applied to both boys and girls and to students from all grades studied.

- There were also clear reductions in general anti-social behaviour such as vandalism, fighting, pilfering, drunkenness and truancy.

- In addition, we could register marked improvement as regards various aspects of the ‘social climate’ of the classroom: improved order and discipline, more positive social relationships, and a more positive attitude to schoolwork and the school. At the same time, there was an increase in student satisfaction with school life.

Brief comments

The reported effects of the intervention programme must be considered quite positive, in particular since many previous attempts to reduce aggressive and antisocial behaviour systematically in pre-adolescents and adolescents have been relatively unsuccessful. The importance of the results is further accentuated by the fact that there has occurred a highly disturbing increase in the prevalence of violence and other anti-social behaviour in most industrialized societies in recent decades. In the Scandinavian countries, for instance, various forms of registered criminality, including criminal violence, have typically increased by 400 to 600 % since the 1950s or 1960s. Similar changes have occurred in most Western, industrialized societies.

Basic principles

The intervention programme is built on a limited set of key principles derived chiefly from research on the development and modification of the implicated problem behaviours, in particular aggressive behaviour. It is thus important to try to create a school (and, ideally, also a home) environment characterized by warmth, positive interest and involvement from adults on the one hand and firm limits to unacceptable behaviour on the other. Third, in cases of violations of limits and rules, non-hostile, non-physical sanctions should be consistently applied. Implied in the latter two principles is also a certain degree of monitoring and surveillance of the students’ activities in and out of school. Finally, adults both at school and at home are supposed to act as authorities in at least some respects.

These principles have been ‘translated’ into a number of specific measures to be used at the school, class, and individual levels (see Table 1 below).1

With regard to implementation and execution, the programme is mainly based on utilization of the existing social environment: teachers and other school personnel, students and parents. Non-mental health professionals thus play a major role in the desired ‘restructuring of the social environment’. ‘Experts’ such as school psychologists, counsellors and social workers serve important functions as planners and co-ordinators, in counselling teachers and parents (groups), and in handling more serious cases.

TABLE 1: Overview of core programme

 

GENERAL PREREQUISITES

** Awareness and involvement on the part of adults

MEASURES AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL

** Questionnaire survey

** School conference day

** Better supervision during recess and lunch time

* Formation of co-ordinating group

* Staff/parents meetings (PTA meeting)

MEASURES AT THE CLASS LEVEL

** Class rules against bullying

** Class meetings

MEASURES AT THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

** Serious talks with bullies and victims

** Serious talks with parents of involved students

* Teacher and parent use of imagination

NOTES:

** Core component

* Highly desirable component

 

Possible reasons for the effectiveness of this non-traditional intervention approach have been discussed in some detail (Olweus, 1992). They include a change of the ‘opportunity’ and ‘reward structures’ for bullying behaviour. It is also emphasized that bully/victim problems can be seen as an excellent entry point for dealing with a variety of problems that plague today’s schools.

This anti-bullying programme is now in use or in the process of being implemented in a considerable number of schools in Europe and North America. Though so far few research-based attempts have been made to evaluate the effects of the programme beyond the study in Bergen, unsystematic information and reports indicate that the general approach is well received by adults in the school environment and that the programme (with or without cultural adaptations or additions of culture-specific components) works well under varying cultural conditions including ethnic diversity. There has, however, recently been made one additional large-scale evaluation of the basic approach, containing most of the core elements of the programme and with a research design similar to that of our study (Smith & Sharp, 1994). In this project too, comprising twenty-three schools (with a good deal of ethnic diversity) in Sheffield, United Kingdom, the results were quite encouraging (though fewer behavioural aspects were studied). It can be argued that the robustness and possible adaptability of the programme is not really surprising, since the existing evidence seems to indicate that the factors and principles affecting the development and modification of aggressive anti-social behaviour are fairly similar across various cultural contexts, at least within the Western, industrialized part of the world.

Conclusion

The basic message of our findings is quite clear: it is definitely possible to reduce bully/victim problems dramatically in school and related problem behaviours through a suitable intervention programme. This programme can be implemented with relatively simple means and without major costs; it is, above all, a question of changing attitudes, behaviour and routines in school life. Introduction of the programme is very likely to have a number of other positive effects as well.

Note

1. The ‘package’ related to the intervention programme consists of the Bully/Victim Questionnaire (which may be ordered from the author; to be published by Blackwell, United Kingdom, in late 1995), a 20-minute video cassette showing scenes from the everyday lives of two bullied children (with English subtitles; this video can be ordered from the author), and a copy of the book Bullying at school: what we know and what we can do, Oxford, U.K. (Cambridge, U.S.A.), Blackwell Publishers, which describes in detail the programme and its implementation. Author’s address: Prof. D. Olweus, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Oysteinsgate 3, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.

References

Farrington, D. 1993. Understanding and preventing bullying. In: Tonry, M., ed. Crime and justice: a review of research. Vol. 17. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Olweus, D. 1973. Hackkyckingar och översittare. Forskning om skolmobbning. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wicksell.

Olweus, D. 1978. Aggression in the schools: bullies and whipping boys. Washington, D.C., Hemisphere Press (Wiley).

Olweus, D. 1991. Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention programme. In: Pepler, D.; Rubin, K., eds. The development and treatment of childhood aggression. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Olweus, D. 1992. Bullying among schoolchildren: intervention and prevention. In: Peters, R.D.; McMahon, J.J.; Quincy, V.L., eds. Aggression and violence throughout the life span. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.

Olweus, D. 1993a. Bullying at school: what we know and what we can do. Oxford, U.K.; Cambridge, U.S.A., Blackwell Publishers. [Has also been published in a number of other langauges.]

Olweus, D. 1993b. Victimization by peers: antecedents and long-term outcomes. In: Rubin, K.H.; Asendorf, J.B., eds. Social withdrawal, inhibition and shyness in childhood. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Olweus, D. 1994. Annotation: Bullying at school: basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention programme. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry (Tarrytown, NY), No. 35, p. 1171-90.

Smith, P.K.; Sharp, S. 1994. School bullying: insights and perspectives. London, Routledge.

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ITALY: LICOSA (Libreria Commissionaria Sansoni S.p.A.), via Duca di Calabria, 1/1, 50125 Firenze, tel.: (055) 64 54 15, fax: (055) 64 12 57; via Bartolini 29, 20155 Milano; FAO Bookshop, via délia Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, tel.: 57 97 46 08, fax: 578 26 10; ILO Bookshop, Corso Unità d'Italia 125, 10127 Torino, tel.: (011) 69 361, fax: (011) 63 88 42.

JAMAICA: University of the West Indies Bookshop, Mona, Kingston 7, tel.: (809) 927 16 60-9, ext. 2269 and 2325, fax: (809) 997 40 32.

JAPAN: Eastern Book Service Inc., 3-13 Hongo 3-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, tel.: (03) 3818-0861, fax: (03) 3818-0864.

JORDAN: Jordan Distribution Agency, P.O. Box 375, Amman, tel.: 63 01 91, fax: (9626) 63 51 52; Jordan Book Centre Co. Ltd, P.O. Box 301, Al-Jubeiha, Amman, tel.: 67 68 82, 60 68 82, fax: (9626) 60 20 16.

KENYA: Africa Book Services Ltd, Quran House, Mfangano Street, P.O. Box 45245, Nairobi; Inter-Africa Book Distributors Ltd, Kencom House, 1st Floor, Moi Avenue, P.O. Box 73580, Nairobi.

KOREA, REPUBLIC OF: Korean National Commission for UNESCO, P.O. Box Central 64, 100-600 Seoul, tel.: 776 39 50/47 54, fax: (822) 568 74 54; street address: Sung Won Building, 10th Floor, 141, SamSung-Dong, KangNam-Ku, 135-090 Seoul.

KUWAIT: The Kuwait Bookshop Co. Ltd, Al Muthanna Complex, Fahed El-Salem Street, P.O. Box 2942, Safat 13030, Kuwait, tel.: (965) 242 42 66, 242 46 87, fax: (965) 242 05 58.

LEBANON: Librairie Antoine A. Naufal & Frères, B.P. 656, Beyrouth.

LESOTHO: Mazenod Book Centre, P.O. 39, Mazenod 160.

LIBERIA: National Bookstore, Mechlin and Carey Streets, P.O. Box 590, Monrovia; Cole & Yancy Bookshops Ltd, P.O. Box 286, Monrovia.

LUXEMBOURG: Librairie Paul Bruck, 22, Grand-Rue, Luxembourg. For periodicals: Messageries Paul Kraus, B.P. 1022, Luxembourg.

MADAGASCAR: Commission nationale de la République démocratique de Madagascar pour l'UNESCO, B.P. 331, Antananarivo.

MALAWI: Malawi Book Service, Head Office, P.O. Box 30044, Chichiri, Blantyre 3.

MALAYSIA: University of Malaya Co-operative Bookshop, P.O. Box 1127, Jalan Pantai Bahru, 59700 Kuala Lumpur, fax: (603) 755 44 24; Mawaddah Enterprise Sdr. Brd., 75, Jalan Kapitan Tam Yeong, Seremban 7000, N. Sembilan, tel.: (606) 71 10 62, fax: (606) 73 30 62.

MALDIVES: Asrafee Bookshop, 1/49 Orchid Magu, Malé.

MALI: Librairie Nouvelle S.A., Avenue Modibo Keita, B.P. 28, Bamako.

MALTA: L. Sapienza & Sons Ltd, 26 Republic Street, Valletta.

MAURITANIA: Société nouvelle de diffusion (SONODI), B.P. 55, Nouakchott.

MAURITIUS: Nalanda Co. Ltd, 30 Bourbon Street, Port-Louis.

MEXICO: Correo de la UNESCO S.A., Guanajuato n.° 72, Col. Roma, C.P. 06700, Deleg. Cuauhtémoc, México D.F., tel.: 574 75 79, fax: (525) 264 09 19; Librería Secur, Av. Carlos Pellicer Cámara s/n, Zona CICOM, 86090 Villahermosa, Tabasco, tel.: (93) 12 39 66, fax: (5293) 12 74 80/13 47 65.

MONACO: For periodicals: Commission nationale pour l'UNESCO, Compte périodiques, 4, rue des Iris, MC-98000 Monte Carlo.

MOROCCO: Librairie 'Aux belles images', 281, avenue Mohammed-V, Rabat; SOCHEPRESSE, angle rues de Dinant et Saint-Saèns, B.P. 13683, Casablanca 05, fax: (212) 224 95 57.

MOZAMBIQUE: Instituto National do Livro e do Disco (INLD), Avenida 24 de Julho, n.° 1927, r/c, and n.° 1921, 1.º andar, Maputo.

MYANMAR: Trade Corporation No. (9), 550-552 Merchant Street, Rangoon.

NEPAL: Sajha Prakashan, Pulchowk, Kathmandu.

NETHERLANDS: Roodvelt Import b.v., Brouwersgracht 288, 1013 HG Amsterdam, tel.: (020) 622 80 35, fax: (020) 625 54 93; INOR Publikaties, M. A. de Ruyterstraat 20 a, Postbus 202, 7480 AE Haaksbergen, tel.: (315) 42 74 00 04, fax: (315) 42 72 92 96. For periodicals: Faxon-Europe, Postbus 197, 1000 AD Amsterdam; Kooyker Booksellers, P.O. Box 24, 2300 AA Leiden, tel.: (071) 16 05 60, fax: (071) 14 44 39.

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: Van Dorp-Eddine N.V., P.O. Box 3001, Willemstad, Curaçao.

NEW ZEALAND: GP Legislation Services, 10 Mulgrove Street, P.O. Box 12418, Thorndon, Wellington, tel.: 496 56 55, fax: (644) 496 56 98. Retail bookshops: Housing Corporation Bldg, 25 Rutland Street, P.O. Box 5513 Wellesley Street, Auckland, tel.: (09) 309 53 61, fax: (649) 307 21 37; 147 Hereford Street, Private Bag, Christchurch, tel.: (03) 79 71 42, fax: (643) 77 25 29; Cargill House, 123 Princes Street, P.O. Box 1104, Dunedin, tel.: (03) 477 82 94, fax: (643) 477 78 69; 33 King Street, P.O. Bax 857, Hamilton, tel.: (07) 846 06 06, fax: (647) 846 65 66; 38-42 Broadway Ave., P.O. Box 138, Palmerston North.

NICARAGUA: Casa del Libro, Librería Universitaria - UCA, Apartado 69, Managua, tel./fax: (505-2) 78 53 75.

NIGER: M. Issoufou Daouda, Établissements Daouda, B.P. 11380, Niamey.

NIGERIA: UNESCO Sub-Regional Office, 9 Bankole Oki Road, Off. Mobolaji Johnson Avenue, Ikoyi, P.O. Box 2823, Lagos, tel.: 68 30 87, 68 40 37, fax: (234-1) 269 37 58; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife; The University Bookshop of Ibadan, P.O. Box 286, Ibadan; The University Bookshop of Nsukka; The University Bookshop of Lagos; The Ahmadu Bello University Bookshop of Zaria.

NORWAY: Akademika A/S, Universitetsbokhandel, P.O. Box 84, Blindern 0314, Oslo 3, tel.: 22 85 30 00, fax: 22 85 30 53; Narvesen Info Center, P.O. Box 6125, Etterstad, 06002 Oslo, tel.: 225 73 300, fax: 226 81 901.

PAKISTAN: Mirza Book Agency, 65 Shahrah Quaid-E-Azam, P.O. Box 729, Lahore 54000, tel.: 66839, telex: 4886 ubplk; UNESCO Publications Centre, Regional Office for Book Development in Asia and the Pacific, P.O. Box 2034A, Islamabad, tel: 82 20 71/9, fax: (9251) 21 39 59, 82 27 96.

PERU: Oficina UNESCO, Avenida Javier Prado Este 2465, Lima 41, tel.: (51-1) 476 98 71, fax: (51-1) 476 98 72.

PHILIPPINES: International Book Center (Philippines), Suite 1703, Cityland 10, Condominium Tower 1, Ayala Ave., corner H.V. Dela Costa Ext., Makati, Metro Manila, tel.: 817 96 76, fax: (632) 817 17 41.

POLAND: ORPAN-Import, Palac Kultury, 00-901 Warszawa; Ars Polona-Ruch, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 7, 00-068 Warszawa.

PORTUGAL: Dias & Andrade Ltda, Livraria Portugal, rua do Carmo 70-74, 1200 Lisboa, tel.: 347 49 82/5, fax: (351) 347 02 64 (postal address: Apartado 2681, 1117 Lisboa Codex).

QATAR: UNESCO Régional Office in the Arab States of the Gulf, P.O. Box 3945, Doha, tel.: 86 77 07/08, fax: (974) 86 76 44.

ROMANIA: ARTEXIM Export-Import, Piata Scienteii, No. 1, P.O. Box 33-16, 70005 Bucuresti.

RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga, Ul. Dimitrova 39, Moskva 113095.

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Young Workers' Creative Organization, Blue Caribbean Building, 2nd Floor, Room 12, Kingstown.

SENEGAL: UNESCO, Bureau régional pour l'Afrique (BREDA), 12, avenue Roume, B.P. 3311, Dakar, tel.: 22 50 82, 22 46 14, fax: 23 83 93; Librairie Clairafrique, B.P. 2005, Dakar.

SEYCHELLES: National Bookshop, P.O. Box 48, Mahé.

SINGAPORE: Chopmen Publishers, 865 Mountbatten Road, No. 05-28/29, Katong Shopping Centre, Singapore 1543, fax: (65) 344 01 80; Select Books Pte Ltd, 19 Tanglin Road No. 3-15, Tanglin Shopping Centre, Singapore 1024, tel.: 732 15 15, fax: (65) 736 08 55.

SLOVAKIA: Alfa Verlag, Hurbanovo nam. 6, 893-31 Bratislava.

SLOVENIA: Cancarjeva Zalozba, Kopitarjeva 2, P.O. Box 201-IV, 61001 Ljubljana.

SOMALIA: Modern Book Shop and General, P.O. Box 951, Mogadiscio.

SOUTH AFRICA: Van Schaik Bookstore (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 2355, Bellville 7530.

SPAIN: Mundi-Prensa Libros S.A., Apartado 1223, Castelló 37, 28001 Madrid, tel.: (91) 431 33 99, fax: (341) 575 39 98; Ediciones Líber, Apartado 17, Magdalena 8, Ondárroa (Vizcaya), tel.: (34-4) 683 0694; Librería de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Palau Moja, Rambla de los Estudios 118, 08002 Barcelona, tel.: (93) 412 10 14, fax: (343) 412 18 54; Librería de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Gran Via de Jaume I, 38, 17001 Girona; Librería de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Rambla d'Arago, 43, 25003 Lérida, tel.: (34-73) 28 19 30, fax: (34-73) 26 10 55; Librería Internacional AEDOS, Consejo de Ciento 391, 08009 Barcelona, tel.: (93) 488 34 92; Amigos de la UNESCO - País Vasco, Alda. Urquijo, 62, 2.° izd., 48011 Bilbao, tel.: (344) 427 51 59/69, fax: (344) 427 51 49.

SRI LANKA: Lake House Bookshop, 100 Sir Chittampalam Gardiner Mawata, P.O. Box 244, Colombo 2, fax: (94-1) 43 21 04.

SURINAME: Suriname National Commission for UNESCO, P.O. Box 3017, Paramaribo, tel.: (597) 618 65, 46 18 71, fax: (597) 49 50 83 (attn. UNESCO Nat. Com.).

SWEDEN: Fritzes Information Center and Bookshop, Regeringsgatan 12, Stockholm (postal address: Fritzes Customer Service, S-106 47 Stockholm), tel.: 468-690 90 90, fax: 468-20 50 21. For periodicals: Wennergren-Williams Informationsservice, Box 1305, S-171 25 Solna, tel.: 468-705 97 50, fax: 468-27 00 71; Tidskriftscentralen, Subscription Services, Norrtullsgatan 15, S-102 32 Stockholm, tel.: 468-31 20 90, fax: 468-30 13 35.

SWITZERLAND: ADECO, Case postale 465, CH-1211 Genève 19, tel.: (021) 943 26 73, fax: (021) 943 36 05; Europa Verlag, Rämistrasse 5, CH-8024 Zurich, tel.: 261 16 29; United Nations Bookshop (counter service only), Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Genève 10, tel.: 740 09 21, fax: (4122) 917 00 27. For periodicals: Naville S.A., 7, rue Lévrier, CH-1201 Genève.

SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC: Librairie Sayegh, Immeuble Diab, rue du Parlement, B.P. 704, Damas.

THAILAND: UNESCO Principal Regional Office in Asia and the Pacific (PROAP), Prakanong Post Office, Box 967, Bangkok 10110, tel.: 391 08 80, fax: (662) 391 08 66; Suksapan Panit, Mansion 9, Rajdamnern Avenue, Bangkok 14, tel.: 281 65 53, 282 78 22, fax: (662) 281 49 47; Nibondh & Co. Ltd, 40 - 42 Charoen Krung Road, Siyaeg Phaya Sri, P.O. Box 402, Bangkok G.P.O., tel.: 221 26 11, fax: 224 68 89; Suksit Siam Company, 113-115 Fuang Nakhon Road, opp. Wat Rajbopith, Bangkok 10200, fax: (662) 222 51 88.

TOGO: Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines (NEA), 239, boulevard du 13 Janvier, B.P. 4862, Lomé.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO, Ministry of Education, 8 Elizabeth Street, St Clair, Port of Spain, tel./fax: (1809) 622 09 39.

TUNISIA: Dar el Maaref, Route de Tunis km 131, B.P. 215, Sousse RC 5922, tel.: (216) 35 62 35, fax: (216) 35 65 30.

TURKEY: Haset Kitapevi A.S., Istiklâl Caddesi No. 469, Posta Kutusu 219, Beyoglu, Istanbul.

UGANDA: Uganda Bookshop, P.O. Box 7145, Kampala.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: Al Mutanabbi Bookshop, P.O. Box 71946, Abu Dhabi, tel.: 32 59 20, 34 03 19, fax: (9712) 31 77 06; Al Batra Bookshop, P.O. Box 21235, Sharjah, tel.: (971-6) 54 72 25.

UNITED KINGDOM: HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, fax: 0171-873 2000; telephone orders only: 0171-873 9090; general inquiries: 0171-873 0011 (queuing system in operation). HMSO bookshops: 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, tel. 0171-873 0011 (counter service only); 71 Lothian Road, Edinburgh EH3 9AZ, tel. 0131-228 4181; 16 Arthur Street, Belfast BT1 4GD, tel. 0123-223 8451; 9-21 Princess Street, Albert Square, Manchester M60 8AS, tel. 0161-834 7201; 258 Broad Street, Birmingham B1 2HE, tel. 0121-643 3740; Southey House, Wine Street, Bristol BS1 2BQ, tel. 0117-926 4306. For scientific maps: McCarta Ltd, 15 Highbury Place, London N5 1QP; GeoPubs (Geoscience Publications Services), 43 Lammas Way, Ampthill, MK45 2TR, tel.: 01525-40 58 14, fax: 01525-40 53 76.

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA: Dar es Salaam Bookshop, P.O. Box 9030, Dar es Salaam.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391, tel. toll-free: 1-800-274-4888, fax: (301) 459-0056; United Nations Bookshop, New York, NY 10017, tel.: (212) 963-7680, fax: (212) 963-4970.

URUGUAY: Ediciones Trecho S.A., Av. Italia 2937, Montivedeo, and Maldonado 1090, Montevideo, tel.: 98 38 08, fax: (598-2) 90 59 83. For books and scientific maps only: Librería Técnica Uruguaya, Colonia n.° 1543, Piso 7, Oficina 702, Casilla de correos 1518, Montevideo.

VENEZUELA: Oficina de la UNESCO en Caracas, Av. Los Chorros Cruce c/ Acueducto, Edificio Asovincar, Altos de Sebucán, Caracas, tel.: (2) 286 21 56, fax: (58-2) 286 03 26; Librería del Este, Av. Francisco de Miranda 52, Edificio Galipán, Apartado 60337, Caracas 1060-A; Editorial Ateneo de Caracas, Apartado 662, Caracas 10010; Fundación Kuai-Mare del Libro Venezolano, Calle Hípica con Avenida La Guairita, Edificio Kuai-Mare, Las Mercedes, Caracas, tel.: (02) 92 05 46, 91 94 01, fax: (582) 92 65 34.

YUGOSLAVIA: Nolit, Terazije 13/VIII, 11000 Beograd.

ZAIRE: SOCEDI (Société d'études et d'édition), 3440, avenue du Ring - Joli Parc, B.P. 165 69, Kinshasa.

ZAMBIA: National Educational Distribution Co. of Zambia Ltd, P.O. Box 2664, Lusaka.

ZIMBABWE: Textbook Sales (Pvt) Ltd, 67 Union Avenue, Harare; Grassroots Books (Pvt) Ltd, Box A267, Harare.

UNESCO BOOK COUPONS can be used to purchase all books and periodicals of an educational, scientific or cultural character. For full information, please write to: UNESCO Coupon Office, UNESCO, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP (France).

 

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