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close this bookAction Against Child Labour (ILO; 2000; 356 pages)
View the documentPreface
Open this folder and view contents1. National policies and programmes
Open this folder and view contents2. Towards improved legislation
Open this folder and view contents3. Improving the knowledge base on child labour
Open this folder and view contents4. Alternatives to child labour
Open this folder and view contents5. Strategies to address child slavery
Open this folder and view contents6. Strategies for employers and their organizations
Open this folder and view contents7. Trade unions against child labour
Open this folder and view contents8. Awareness-raising
Open this folder and view contents9. Action by community groups and NGOs
close this folder10. Resources on child labour
View the documentINTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contents10.1 GENERAL PUBLICATIONS ON CHILD LABOUR
View the document10.2 SPECIAL THEMES
View the documentOther ILO publications
View the documentBack Cover
 

10.2 SPECIAL THEMES

Richard ANKER & Helina MELKAS
ILO-Labour Market Policies Branch

ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES TO ELIMINATE OR REDUCE CHILD LABOUR

Geneva, 1996, ILO, 60p.

The task of eliminating child labour is not simple in low-income countries, where poverty often makes child labour necessary for families. This report helps to fill a gap in the knowledge in this area by investigating the effectiveness of policies and programmes that rely on economic incentives to eliminate child labour. It is based on an experimental survey, which collected information from those now implementing economic incentive programmes (mostly, but not exclusively, specialist NGOs).

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-110285-8

Kritaya ARCHAVANITKUL
Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University/ILO-IPEC

TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN FOR LABOUR EXPLOITATION INCLUDING CHILD PROSTITUTION IN THE MEKONG SUB-REGION

Thailand, July 1998, 97p.

This subregional report provides an overview and synthesis of the problem of trafficking in children in the Mekong subregion, which covers Yunnan province in China, Myanmar (or Burma), Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Thailand, Cambodia, and Viet Nam. Four research teams were involved: one team each to cover Viet Nam, Yunnan (China), and Cambodia; the Thailand team also covered Lao PDR and Myanmar. The report presents a synthesis of the findings. Separate country reports are available, and summaries of the Cambodia, Viet Nam and Yunnan studies can be found in the appendices.

The research was not confined to trafficked children only, but also involved victims who were trafficked when they were younger. Practices related to trafficking in young women were also explored. In addition, information was obtained from key informants such as children's parents, children's employers, and government and NGO staff dealing with child trafficking.

Language of the text: English

Kebebew ASHAGRIE
ILO

IMPROVING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE ON CHILD LABOUR

Geneva, February 1998, 25p. & four appendices

This report has two objectives: first, to describe briefly the lack of meaningful statistical data on child labour at the individual country level, the reasons for this deficiency, and the efforts made recently by the ILO to develop, through field experiments in a number of countries, methodologies, concepts, definitions, classifications, etc., which assist in quantifying the child labour phenomenon in all its facets. Second, it provides detailed descriptions on the more suitable methodological approaches, as well as technical guidelines for determining the extent, character, causes and consequences of child labour by means of surveys and other inquiries at the national level.

Language of the text: English

Kebebew ASHAGRIE

ILO-METHODOLOGICAL CHILD LABOUR SURVEY AND STATISTICS: ILO'S RECENT WORK IN BRIEF

Geneva, June 1997, 19p. & three appendices

The report provides descriptions of the ILO methodological surveys experimented in four countries, the survey instruments and the variables used, the lessons learned from the exercise, the effectiveness of the different methodological approaches, concepts and definitions tested. It contains the conclusions and recommendations made by the ILO inter-regional seminar of child labour specialists who met for a week and examined critically the findings of the experiments. It also outlines the statistical work to be undertaken by the ILO in the near future, including national surveys in some 40 countries over a five-year period. The appendices provide some of the highlights of the overall findings of the experimental surveys in the four countries.

Language of the text: English

Kebebew ASHAGRIE

ILO-STATISTICS ON WORKING CHILDREN AND HAZARDOUS CHILD LABOUR IN BRIEF

Geneva, April 1998, 15p.

This report presents the statistical data assembled to date by the ILO concerning child labour at the global level and regionally, with total figures broken down by sex. It describes briefly, and depicts graphically, the overall picture of the child labour situation in regions, rural and urban areas, and in major industry divisions and occupational groups. It provides information on the working conditions of working children by analysing hours worked and earnings. It contains more detailed descriptions of hazardous child labour - again in words and graphically - by industry, occupation and sex, thereby identifying the types and severity of injuries and illnesses suffered by children. It also contains a fact sheet showing some indicators of the extent of child labour in the countries where national surveys have been conducted recently using the newly developed ILO methodologies.

Language of the text: English

Kebebew ASHAGRIE
ILO - Bulletin of Labour Statistics

STATISTICS ON CHILD LABOUR: A BRIEF REPORT

Geneva, 1993, No. 3, p. 11-24

This article is a brief evaluation of the data assembled to date relating to child labour. It describes the concepts, definitions and methods used for collecting and cross-classifying the relevant statistics, including analyses of regional and subregional response patterns and data quality. It also provides an outline of the activities being pursued for improving and expanding the data.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

ISSN 0007-4950

Saeed A. AWAN
Directorate of Labour Welfare, Punjab (Pakistan)/ILO-IPEC

CHILD LABOUR IN THE FOOTBALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

December 1996, 78p.

This study was undertaken by the Directorate of Labour Welfare Punjab, to assess the magnitude and dimensions of child labour in the football industry. It is intended to: (i) provide comprehensive data on the problem, with an emphasis on the working conditions of the child workers; their wages and working hours; habits, hopes, fears and aspirations; and the views of the parents and employers, and (ii) formulate an action-orientated approach to the elimination of child labour in this sector of the economy.

Language of the text: English

Saeed A. AWAN
Directorate of Labour Welfare, Punjab (Pakistan)/ILO-IPEC

CHILD LABOUR IN THE SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

December 1996, 81p.

This study was carried out to provide vital data to policy makers, individuals and organizations interested in the welfare of working children. It is an example of cooperation between government and international organizations in assessing the dimensions and finding solutions to the complex social problems related to child labour.

Language of the text: English

Maggie BLACK
ANTI-SLAVERY INTERNATIONAL

CHILD DOMESTIC WORKERS. A HANDBOOK FOR RESEARCH AND ACTION

London, 1996

This study stemmed not only from a deep concern about exploitative child labour in general, but from the terms of employment, the ways in which children are placed in exploitative work in the informal sector and in particular the way in which children typically enter domestic work. Child domestic labour contractual and practical characteristics have features akin to slavery. A child employed in a private household may be unpaid; be expected to work around the clock without set hours or time off; and be virtually imprisoned and treated as the chattel of the employer.

In January 1996, at the invitation of ASI and with IPEC support, a seminar was convened for researchers from all over the world. The purpose was to gain insights for the development of the research guidelines contained in this handbook. The handbook, therefore, offers a practical approach to research that will inspire other child labour NGOs to enter the field, along with workers' and employers' organizations and relevant government departments.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 0900918-411

Maggie BLACK
ILO-Child Labour Collection

IN THE TWILIGHT ZONE: CHILD WORKERS IN THE HOTEL, TOURISM AND CATERING INDUSTRY

Geneva, 1995, 92p.

This report challenges a number of assumptions about the involvement of children in the tourist industry. It is based on four studies carried out by the ILO in Kenya, Mexico, the Philippines and Sri Lanka, which investigated the conditions of child work in hotels, clubs and restaurants, the relevant laws and their enforcement, and programmatic and project action. It also highlights the problems of inadequate data and the distorting effect of sensationalist reporting on the subject of child sex. Many of the girls usually described as child prostitutes by journalists are actually working in the twilight zone of the tourist industry rather than in brothels. The tourist industry, as a sector characterized by low pay, irregularity of work and lack of skills, favours the employment of under-age workers.

The author argues that a better understanding is needed of the dynamics surrounding the employment and career paths of these young people, especially of girls.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-109194-5

Catherine BOIDIN
ILO-Labour Administration Branch Document No. 42

LABOUR INSPECTION AND THE ADOPTION OF A POLICY ON CHILD LABOUR. The working child: psycho-sociological approach

Geneva, 1995, 102p.

The document emphasizes risk factors in the psychological and social well-being of working children and the different forms of violence exerted on them; it proposes a training method to interview working children. It is designed for trainers responsible for the training of labour inspectors and others in order to elaborate a coherent policy. As part of ILO action for the training of labour inspectors, it constitutes the second part of a series which began with a training guide, first published in 1994.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

ISBN 92-2-209539-1

Regeringskansliets Offsetcentral

REPORT OF THE WORLD CONGRESS AGAINST COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN

Stockholm 1996, two volumes, Part I: 267p.; Part II: 255 p.

The Congress was held in Stockholm in August 1996. Part I consists of a chapter on the adoption of the Declaration and Agenda for Action (which is described in detail), as well as chapters on the organization and running of the Congress. Annexes list participants and reprint the keynote speeches by co-organizer ECPAT (End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism) and other NGOs and United Nations agencies, reports from panels and workshops, and concluding remarks by the Rapporteur. Part II consists entirely of statements by Heads of State.

In the Declaration and Agenda for Action, the Congress called on all States to criminalize, among others, the commercial exploitation of children, to enforce laws, and to promote action with society to prevent children from entering the sex trade.

There were 1,300 participants from more than 130 countries, including youth from eight countries.

Language of the text: English

Panudda BOONPALA
ILO-IPEC

STRATEGY AND ACTION AGAINST THE COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN

Stockholm, Sweden, 1996, 15p.

This report was prepared for the World Congress against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm to generate discussion and to encourage partner organizations to develop action programmes.

It gives an overview of the problem and analyses the causes of child prostitution and trafficking, with the consequences and effects; it also provides an outline of international labour and human rights standards, an update on developments in international labour legislation and the IPEC action, including new initiatives carried out in various countries. The annex contains a resolution concerning the elimination of child labour, which was submitted to the Congress.

Language of the text: English

Jo BOYDEN
UNICEF ICDC. Innocenti Occasional Paper, Child Rights Series 9

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND CHILD WORK

Florence, 1994, 52p.

This paper argues that making education compulsory cannot alone remove all the social and economic obstacles that keep children out of work and at school. Education, however, will have an important impact on full-time work, although children will continue to combine work and school. It points out that while work can cause children to drop out from school, school also causes them to work in order to pay for tuition, books and uniforms. It also notes the poor quality of schools, which limits enrolment. Gender differences in level of work and educational participation are significant, with girls working longer hours and attending schools less. Genuine reform will come only as governments increase resource allocations to primary education and support school reform measures such as greater flexibility of scheduling, and curricula and teaching methods better suited to low-income children and their families. Education is only part of the answer, and multi-sectoral governmental interventions to relieve the economic and social burden of poor families are also required.

Language of text: English

ISSN 1014-7837

Jean-Maurice DERRIEN
ILO-Labour Administration Branch

LABOUR INSPECTION AND THE ADOPTION OF A POLICY ON CHILD LABOUR. Training guide

Geneva, 1994, Document No. 36, 182p.

The guide is designed for training labour inspectors and other persons concerned with the problems of child labour, and for formulating a coherent and concerted national policy on child labour. There are three modules comprising a progressive training programme of methods for resolving problems related to child labour: identification of the problem (Module 1: Watching and listening); evaluation of its gravity (Module 2: Evaluating and understanding); and the determination of the most adequate solutions for an efficient action programme (Module 3: Taking action and educating). A bibliography of documents published by the ILO and other organizations is included.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

ISBN 92-2-209145-0 (English)

Judith ENNEW
UNICEF ICDC

LEARNING OR LABOURING? A compilation of key texts on child work and basic education

Florence, 1995, 152p.

This is a compilation of extracts from essential reference works on child labour and basic education, divided into four main areas: ideas, debates, evidence and case studies. It includes a discussion of the nature of childhood, work, exploitation and education; the relationship between compulsory education and elimination of child labour; descriptions of child labour in Ghana, Nigeria, Peru, India, the United States and Colombia; the relationship between school and work; and case studies on education and experimental approaches.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 88-85401-20-1

Valentina FORASTIERI
ILO-Occupational Safety and Health Branch

CHILDREN AT WORK. HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS

Geneva, 1997, 138p.

In order to fill the gap in information on the health of working children, this report provides an assessment of available information and discusses existing legislation, statistics, case studies on children's actual working conditions in selected occupations and their impact on children's health. A possible approach to a national policy for the elimination of child labour is also discussed. In this context, the development of a programme on occupational safety and health is proposed to address working children. Insights are provided into technical instruments and their application to the evaluation of the damage caused to the physical and mental health of children in various jobs. Methodological tools on occupational safety and primary health care, which could be adapted to address the health status of working children for preventive and control purposes, are examined in the annexes.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-109520-7

Alec FYFE
ILO-Bureau of Workers' Activities

BITTER HARVEST. CHILD LABOUR IN AGRICULTURE

Geneva, 1996, 24p.

Informative and action oriented, the booklet conveys a clear and comprehensive message to raise awareness on the risks working children in agriculture face. The central question, "What can rural workers and their organizations do?", finds guidance and support in the substantial richness of information and suggestions.

Alec FYFE & Michele JANKANISH
ILO-Child Labour Collection

TRADE UNIONS AND CHILD LABOUR: A GUIDE TO ACTION

Geneva, 1997, 108p.

The authors explore the numerous possibilities for trade union action against child labour at local, national and international levels. The guide also illustrates what can be achieved by presenting a variety of innovative approaches currently taken by workers' organizations. To assist trade unions in their policy and action to combat child labour, the guide also sets out and elaborates upon a ten-step framework of action for trade unions, consisting of investigation; institutional development; policy development; monitoring; awareness-raising; compaigning; collective bargaining; direct support to working children; mobilization; and utilizing the supervisory machinery of international instruments.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-109514-2

S. GOONESEKERE
ILO-Child Labour Collection

CHILD LABOUR IN SRI LANKA: LEARNING FROM THE PAST

Geneva, 1993, 77p.

This report focuses on government measures to eliminate the employment of children in Sri Lanka, where child labour is frequently exploitative in nature, characterized by poor wages and dangerous working conditions, and occurs in workplaces completely lacking in workers' rights and labour organization. The author analyses past experiences and existing legislative provisions to seek to demonstrate how collaborative efforts on the part of the Government, non-governmental organizations and international agencies could lead to innovative approaches to the problem. The author argues that absolute prohibition of the employment of children should be the ultimate goal of such policy measures.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-106473-5

S. GUNN and Z. OSTOS
ILO-International Labour Review, Vol. 131, No. 6

DILEMMAS IN TACKLING CHILD LABOUR: THE CASE OF SCAVENGER CHILDREN IN THE PHILIPPINES

Geneva, 1992, 18p.

This report of a pilot ILO child labour project describes an example of child labour in the informal sector - child scavengers. It reviews various policy and programme dilemmas encountered in addressing the problem at the enormous Philippine garbage dump known as Smokey Mountain. It shows that a multi-pronged approach beginning with highly targeted research is crucial and provides an example of how this can be done. It concludes with an assessment of the lessons learned from the project and suggests components for future effective urban child labour programmes.

Language of the text: English, French and Spanish

English

ISSN 0020-7780

French

ISSN 0378-5599

Spanish

ISSN 0378-5548

Het Spinhuis Publications, Amsterdam

CHILD HEALTH AND CHILD LABOUR: FROM INFORMATION TO INTERVENTION

Amsterdam, 1999, 63p.

The Netherlands Foundation for International Child Health (NFICH) and the Amsterdam Foundation for International Research on the Exploitation of Working Children (IREWOC) initiated in 1997 a meeting of international experts from different disciplines to elaborate on possible interventions to improve the health situation of working children. This book is the result of this two-day international seminar attended by representatives from a number of organizations, including the ILO, WHO, UNICEF, NOVIB, Terre des Hommes, Anti-Slavery International and SCF. New ways of intervention and regulation are pointed out, and the need for a participatory community-based approach is highlighted.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 90-5589-117-7

ILO

ATTACKING CHILD LABOUR IN THE PHILIPPINES. AN INDICATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR PHILIPPINE-ILO ACTION

Geneva, 1994, 28p.

This report reflects the outcome of the National Planning Workshop on Child Labour, held in Manila in July 1994. The workshop brought together representatives of a wide range of government institutions and NGOs, local government officials and academics from Manila and the provinces. It is meant to be used in developing policies, programmes and strategies, and contains information regarding children who are victims of trafficking; children employed in mining and quarrying; children in home-based industries, especially under subcontracting arrangements; and children trapped in prostitution.

The report also indicates the partners active in the struggle against child labour, as well as the priority areas for action.

Language of the text: English

ILO - Conditions of Work Digest

CHILD LABOUR: LAW AND PRACTICE

Geneva, 1991, Volume 10, No. 1, 225p.

This issue of the Conditions of Work Digest provides a factual and analytical review of the law and practice on child labour throughout the world. It contains a fact sheet summarizing legal provisions on minimum ages for work, including light and hazardous work, and selected provisions of the relevant international labour standards and other instruments on children. It also includes analytical chapters on national policies and legislation, and enforcement and implementation of international labour Conventions on child labour.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-107751-9

ILO (ILO-GB.267/WP/SDL/2)

REPORT OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) ON TRADE, EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR STANDARDS

Geneva, November 1996, 22p.

This report to the ILO Governing Body gives a summary of an OECD study of trade and labour standards, finalized in May 1996 and submitted to the Ministers of the OECD at their meeting in the same month. It covers three majors themes and identifies a small set of labour standards, which it describes as core standards, including the elimination of child labour and the prohibition of forced labour.

The report reviews the links between certain core labour standards, trade, investment and economic development. In the final part, it discusses the effectiveness of a number of mechanisms that are either already operational or could be introduced to promote respect for these core standards.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

International Organisation of Employers (IOE) in collaboration with ILO/IPEC

EMPLOYERS' HANDBOOK ON CHILD LABOUR: A GUIDE FOR TAKING ACTION

Geneva, 1998, 65p.

The purpose of the handbook is to guide national employers' federations in the formulation of policies and programmes to actively join national and international coalitions against child labour. It offers guidance in the design of employer programmes on child labour, and illustrates some of the various actions which national employers' federations and sectoral business associations have already taken. Practical information is included on the following subjects:

• content of international standards;
• explanation of existing international programmes;
• examples of concrete action taken by national employers' organizations;
• examples of corporate and sectoral initiatives;
• description of various codes of conduct and labelling initiatives; and
• guidance in the development of policies and programmes.

For more information, contact the International Organisation of Employers: 26 chemin de Joinville, Case Postale 68, CH-1216 Cointrin/Geneva. Telephone: +41 22 798 1616, Fax:: +41 22 798 8862

Text available in English, French, Spanish.

ILO

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS A WORKERS' EDUCATION MANUAL

Fourth edition (revised)

Geneva, 1998,148 p.

This book provides a brief but thorough introduction to the formulation, adoption and application of internationally agreed standards of good practice in labour matters - international labour Conventions and Recommendations - and has been updated to cover developments up to mid-1997. By 1997, the ILO had adopted 181 international labour Conventions and 188 Recommendations on all aspects of the world of work. The most comprehensive child labour Convention is the Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) How are these standards elaborated and how is their application ensured ?

The manual is intended for trade unionists, students and the general reader interested in labour matters, social issues and human rights. It is designed for use in workers' education courses as well as for individual study.

Language of the text: English and French

ISBN 92-2-110330-7

ILO-IPEC
N. HASPELS, F. DE LOS ANGELES-BAUTISTA, P. BOONPALA, and C. BOSE

ACTION AGAINST CHILD LABOUR: STRATEGIES IN EDUCATION. COUNTRY EXPERIENCES IN THE MOBILIZATION OF TEACHERS, EDUCATORS AND THEIR ORGANIZATIONS IN COMBATING CHILD LABOUR

Geneva, forthcoming, 118p.

In 1995, IPEC launched a project, "Mobilizing Teachers, Educators and their Organizations in Combating Child Labour", in cooperation with UNICEF, UNESCO and Education International, the international organization representing trade unions and professional associations of teachers and educational personnel, with the financial support of the Norwegian Government. The objectives were to identify "best practices" worldwide on how to promote education as a major strategy in the elimination of child labour and on how to further mobilize teachers, educators and their organizations in the fight against it. This synthesis report summarizes the outcome of action research in 13 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America which identified how educational initiatives have been instrumental in combating child labour at local and national levels. Consensus on the research findings and recommendations was reached during a Round Table Meeting on Education and Child Labour held in May 1997.

The report aims to provide guidance and models for future action to teachers, educators, their organizations and policy-makers on how to combat child labour more effectively through education. It analyses where, why and how education has been successful in keeping children in school and out of the workplace, and in meeting the needs of children who are still working. It also identifies strategies for further addressing child labour concerns in educational policies and programmes.

Language of the text: English

ILO-IPEC

ALTERNATIVES TO CHILD LABOUR: A REVIEW OF ACTION PROGRAMMES WITH A SKILLS TRAINING COMPONENT IN ASIA

Bangkok, 1998, 43p.

This report reflects the results of a thematic evaluation of action programmes with a skills training component in Asia. The evaluation reviewed 19 action programmes in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Thailand.

Language of the text: English

ILO-IPEC. Technical Workshop on Child Labour

CHILD LABOUR IN COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE IN AFRICA

Geneva, 1997, 58p.

The report reviews the Technical Workshop on Child Labour in Commercial Agriculture, held in Dar-es-Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, in August 1996, organized by the ILO-IPEC. The objectives were to elaborate a programme of action on practical and feasible priority measures to remove children from hazardous and exploitative tasks, improve working conditions of children in commercial agriculture in African countries, and ultimately eliminate such forms of employment.

The report summarizes the six working papers which were prepared for the workshop, and contains the Programme of Action adopted by the participants. The annexes include the proceedings of the workshop, the list of participants and the programme of the workshop, the opening speeches and the closing statements.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2 110485-0

ILO-IPEC

CHILD LABOUR SURVEYS. Results of methodological experiments in four countries 1992-93

Geneva, Bureau of Statistics, 1996, 83p.

In 1993, in an effort to improve the production of quantitative and qualitative data on child labour, which were lacking in the majority of the countries concerned by this problem, IPEC, in collaboration with the respective national statistical institutions, carried out experimental surveys in Ghana, India, Indonesia, and Senegal. The aim was to test a specially designed methodology measuring children's activities as schooling and out-of-school work affecting the 5-14 age groups. The surveys were administered at household and enterprise level and among street children (in Ghana), in both urban and rural areas.

The publication is aimed at assisting each country in the collection of reliable detailed data on child labour, necessary for planning national action. It provides survey instruments and findings, the problems the surveys encounter, references and recommended survey approaches (in an annex).

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-110106-1

ILO-Labour Education. Bureau for Workers' Activities

PROTECTING CHILDREN IN THE WORLD OF WORK

Geneva 1997, No. 108, 59p.

The ILO Bureau for Workers' Activities devoted this edition of its quarterly publication to child labour on the eve of the Oslo International Conference on Child Labour, held in October 1997. It was specifically addressed to trade union organizations with the aim of contributing to a fruitful exchange of ideas among workers and their counterparts attending the Conference, and at the same time was meant to inspire awareness and action to combat child labour both at a national and international level.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish, Italian

ISSN 0378-5467

ILO-Labour Education. Bureau for Workers' Activities

TRADE UNIONS AND CHILD LABOUR

Geneva, 1996, No. 102, 57p.

This issue of Labour Education aims to contribute to promoting awareness among trade unions on the problem of child labour as part of the general effort the ILO is undertaking to eliminate this social evil.

It is divided in two parts: the editorial, comprising eight articles, which gives an indication of the actual extent of the problem; and the appendices, composed of texts of the major ILO Conventions and Recommendations, as well as non-ILO treaties relevant to child labour.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

ISSN 0378-5467

ILO

ILOLEX on CD-ROM. A database of international labour standards 1998 edition

ILOLEX is a full-text trilingual database (English/French/Spanish) on international labour standards, including those on child labour, with sophisticated search and retrieval functions. A single CD-ROM contains all three language versions.

Each language version includes, among others, the ILO Constitution; all ILO Conventions and Recommendations; comments of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations and reports of the Conference Committee on the Application of Standards, from 1987; and ratification lists by Convention and by country.

The whole database can be searched by subject classification, country, particular Convention, or free text query using words or expressions.

DOS version ISBN 92-2-010608-6

Windows version ISBN 92-2-010604-3

ILO-UNITED NATIONS CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

CHILDREN IN BONDAGE. A CALL FOR ACTION

Geneva, 1992, 66p.

The publication provides an overview of the problem of child bondage and suggests measures which can be carried out to combat it. It is based on the proceedings of the Asian Regional Seminar on Children in Bondage held in Islamabad, Pakistan, organized by ILO-IPEC in collaboration with the Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis and the United Nations Centre for Human Rights. The Programme of Action against Child Bondage formulated and adopted by the participants was intended to encourage and assist governments, workers' and employers' organizations, lawyers and judges, and NGOs to take concrete and concerted action.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-108724-7

D. LEVISON, R. ANKER, S. ASHRAF & S. BARGE
ILO-Employment Department. Labour Market Papers 15

IS CHILD LABOUR REALLY NECESSARY IN INDIA'S CARPET INDUSTRY ?

Geneva, 1996, 33p.

The study - which surveys 362 carpet-weaving enterprises in India - differs from previous studies of child labour by considering child activities from the perspective of the industry (labour demand) rather than from the perspective of the child and his or her family (labour supply). It describes how children work in the "Carpet Belt" of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh and examines how indispensable children are in this industry because of the relative cost advantage of using child labour. It also dismisses as entirely fallacious the "nimble finger" argument to justify child labour in the industry, as it finds that children are not more likely than adults to make the finest knots. The sample survey of enterprises is supplemented with in-depth case studies of employers, exporters, and American importers.

The report contains a thorough bibliography, two appendices - one on measures of carpet quality and working conditions, and the other on the United States case study of carpet importers and retailers - and economic data tables.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-110205-X

ISSN 1020-2633

Ministry of Women and Social Welfare (MOWSW), Nepal and ILO-IPEC

NATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION AGAINST TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN AND THEIR COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

Nepal 1998, 19 p.

The document describes the outcome of the National Consultative Workshop, held in Kathmandu in April 1998. After detailing the National Plan and the commitment of His Majesty's Government in action against trafficking, the paper details the initiatives already taken to confront the problem, including the formation of the Council for Women and Children's Development in 1995. Subsequent chapters address policy, research and institutional development; legislation and law enforcement; awareness creation, advocacy, networking, and social mobilization; health and education; income and employment generation; and, finally, rescue and reintegration. Each chapter has its objective, priority, programme activities and actors summarized in tabular form in an appendix.

Language of the text: English

National Commission on Women's Affairs, Office of the Prime Minister, Thailand

NATIONAL POLICY AND PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE PREVENTION AND ERADICATION OF THE COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN

Thailand. 1996, 37p.

The Government of Thailand, through the Office of the National Commission on Women's Affairs (ONCWA), has prepared a Master Plan of Action to deal with the issues raised by the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Many were involved in the preparation of this plan, including representatives from NGOs, planning and policy bodies, academics and researchers, officers from concerned government departments, representatives from UNICEF and other international organizations. The key strategy is built on five structural pillars: prevention; law enforcement; assistance and protection; rehabilitation and adjustment to normal life; and establishment of structures, mechanisms and systems for supervision, control, follow-up and speeding up of the implementation.

Language of the text: English

David PARKER
UNICEF, Innocenti Occasional Papers, Child Rights Series, Number 6

RESOURCES AND CHILD RIGHTS: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

Florence, April 1994, 28p.

Several key measures are identified for increasing the availability of resources for the implementation of child rights: budgets can be restructured; non-traditional human and organizational resources can be mobilized; technologies and processes can be made more efficient; critical input can be made available; and targeting can be improved to increase equity. The paper concludes with a discussion of the changing economic and political roles of the different actors for the fulfilment of child rights, considering the responsibility for the financing of actions, the provision of services, and the management of social sectors.

Language of the text: English

ISSN 1014-7837

Loïc PICARD
ILO

COMBATING CHILD LABOUR: THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Geneva, 1995, 7p.

The author discusses a national policy against child labour and proposes guidelines for its operation. He also reviews provisions in international Conventions on child labour under me following categories: a minimum age for admission to employment or work; the regulation of child labour conditions; different sectors of economic activity; and jobs and work considered as hazardous.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

S. PARDOEN with R. ADI and H. PRASADJA
ILO-IPEC in cooperation with Atma Jaya Research Centre

CHILDREN IN HAZARDOUS WORK IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN INDONESIA

Geneva, 1996, 103p.

This book describes the working conditions of children who are employed in hazardous work in the informal sector in Indonesia. The study focuses in particular on children involved in jermal (fish-trapping) operations in North Sumatra, petty trading on the congested streets and intersections of Jakarta, scavenging at the major dump-sites in Bekasi, sea-fishing in Central Java, and deep-sea pearl diving in South-east Maluku. The study concludes with a list of recommendations regarding action that can and should be taken to address the problem of child labour in the informal sector in Indonesia.

There are photographs and health data tables throughout the text, and two appendices - a sample questionnaire for child workers and a model clinical examination scheme for child workers.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 979-8827-04-X

V. RIALP
ILO-Child Labour Collection

CHILDREN AND HAZARDOUS WORK IN THE PHILIPPINES

Geneva, 1993, 72p.

This report focuses on hazardous child labour in the Philippines, paying particular attention to efforts to eliminate child involvement in prostitution and deep-sea fishing. The historical change in emphasis in the Philippines from intervention through legislation to direct action at the local level is well documented. The study also highlights the important role of advocacy, public awareness-raising and community mobilization in the tight against child labour. The author argues that the complexity of the problem requires collaboration between different agencies, interest groups and the Government for effectively tackling the problem of child labour and instigating social change.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-2-106474-3

V. MUNTARBHORN
UNICEF

EXTRATERRITORIAL CRIMINAL LAWS AGAINST CHILD SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

Geneva, 1998, 126p.

Extraterritorial criminal laws on the sexual exploitation of children are increasingly important in an era when sex tourists and paedophiles can so easily travel to countries other than their own to abuse children. This study provides an analysis of the state of extraterritorial laws and their application. Through extensive research in a number of countries, the author analyses the practicability of such laws. The key findings are that extraterritorial criminal laws should be seen as a complement to rather than a substitute for the laws, policies and enforcement of the destination country; that at present there is no uniformity of extraterritorial criminal laws between countries; and that the presence of extraterritorial criminal laws is inadequate unless there is close cooperation between the countries of origin and the destination countries of the sex exploiters.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 92-806-3394-5

Christian ROOTAERT & Ravi KANBUR
ILO - International Labour Review

CHILD LABOUR: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

Geneva, 1995, Volume 134, No. 2, p. 187-203

Starting with the questions "what is a child?" and "what is work?", the authors review data on child labour. Focusing on its determinants, they examine supply factors at household level, including family size, education, wages and risk of income loss, and factors affecting demand, including technology. They argue that given the established link between poverty and child labour there are certain advantages in interventions to improve the lot of employed children even if these induce an increase in the supply of child workers. Economic incentives and legislation are the two pillars on which efforts to help working children should be based.

Language of the text: English, French, Spanish

ISSN 0020-7780

M.C. SALAZAR and W.A. GLASINOVICH (eds.)
UNICEF

CHILD WORK AND EDUCATION: FIVE CASE STUDIES FROM LATIN AMERICA

Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, England, 1998, 162p.

This edited collection addresses the relationship between child work and education, through five case studies in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru. The authors argue that child labour occurs not only as a result of economic need or exploitation, but as children drop out of school in favour of work due to the poor quality of schooling. The authors argue therefore that what is required when attempting to combat child labour is a major reform of the educational system, in particular improvements in coverage, quality and affordability of schooling. They also suggest that, in cases of severe hardship, subsidies and scholarships may need to be considered as incentives to children and their parents.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 1-80414-926-4

University Press, Amsterdam

HEALTH ASPECTS OF CHILD LABOUR - REPORT OF A WORKSHOP AND SYMPOSIUM

Kuala Lumpur, 1996

The Netherlands Foundation for International Child Health (NFICH) and the Foundation for International Research on the Exploitation of Working Children (IREWOC) joined in the initiative for a pre-congress Workshop on the Health Aspects of Child Labour at the 4th International Conference of Topical Priorities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Representatives from ILO, WHO and UNICEF were present.

The purpose was to present the available knowledge by experienced professionals and to invite improved cooperation between the parties involved.

Language of the text: English

ISBN 90-5383-531-8

 

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