3.2 BASIC RESULTS
Variations exist in the results of the surveys conducted in the four countries owing to their differences in terms of social, cultural, political and economic development levels, average family size, household income and expenditure, literacy or illiteracy levels of the adult population, and especially the school enrolment and attendance ratios of young children. The findings are also influenced by the differences in the reference period of the surveys, for example, whether it covers a schooling period, agricultural season, and so on. For the same reasons, the findings also vary between any two areas covered by the survey within each country.
The statistical results from the surveys have proved the existence of a positive correlation - in some instances a strong one - between child labour and such factors as poverty, illiteracy, the level of rural community underdevelopment, urban slum conditions, school truancy or drop-outs, abandoned or runaway children, large family size, female-headed households, the parents' - especially the father's - occupations, and permanent absence or death of the father, among others.
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