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close this bookAction Against Child Labour (ILO; 2000; 356 pages)
View the documentPreface
Open this folder and view contents1. National policies and programmes
Open this folder and view contents2. Towards improved legislation
close this folder3. Improving the knowledge base on child labour
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder3.2 BASIC RESULTS
View the documentHousehold survey
View the documentEstablishment survey
View the documentSurvey of street children
View the documentThe time-use approach
Open this folder and view contents3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ON CONDUCTING SURVEYS
Open this folder and view contents3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
View the document3.5 FURTHER RESEARCH
View the documentAppendix 3.1 List of detailed variables in child labour surveys
View the documentBibliography on child labour surveys, statistics and related matters
Open this folder and view contents4. Alternatives to child labour
Open this folder and view contents5. Strategies to address child slavery
Open this folder and view contents6. Strategies for employers and their organizations
Open this folder and view contents7. Trade unions against child labour
Open this folder and view contents8. Awareness-raising
Open this folder and view contents9. Action by community groups and NGOs
Open this folder and view contents10. Resources on child labour
View the documentOther ILO publications
View the documentBack Cover


Variations exist in the results of the surveys conducted in the four countries owing to their differences in terms of social, cultural, political and economic development levels, average family size, household income and expenditure, literacy or illiteracy levels of the adult population, and especially the school enrolment and attendance ratios of young children. The findings are also influenced by the differences in the reference period of the surveys, for example, whether it covers a schooling period, agricultural season, and so on. For the same reasons, the findings also vary between any two areas covered by the survey within each country.

The statistical results from the surveys have proved the existence of a positive correlation - in some instances a strong one - between child labour and such factors as poverty, illiteracy, the level of rural community underdevelopment, urban slum conditions, school truancy or drop-outs, abandoned or runaway children, large family size, female-headed households, the parents' - especially the father's - occupations, and permanent absence or death of the father, among others.

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