Change to Ukrainian interface versionChange to English interface versionChange to Russian interface versionHome pageClear last query resultsHelp page
Search for specific termsBrowse by subject categoryBrowse alphabetical list of titlesBrowse by organizationBrowse special topic issues

close this bookEcologically Sound Energy Planning Strategies for Sustainable Development (Indian Institute of Sciences)
View the documentAbstract:
Open this folder and view contents1.0 Introduction:
View the document2.0 Energy conservation
close this folder3.0 Renewable energy sources
View the document3.1.0 Solar energy conversion modes:
View the document3.1.1 Solar water heating
View the document3.1.2 Industrial and commercial systems:
View the document3.1.3 Domestic water heating:
View the document3.1.4 Present status in Karnataka:
View the document3.1.5 Technical issues:
View the document3.2.0 Wind Energy:
View the document3.2.1 Wind energy systems:
View the document3.2.2 Economic aspects:
View the document3.3.0 Waste/Residue based energy:
View the document3.4.0 Hydro electric power and energy:
View the document4.0 Energy Planning:
View the document5.0 Integrated Renewable Energy Concepts
View the document6.0 Conclusions:
View the document7.0 References:

3.1.5 Technical issues:

Technical snags encountered in solar heater are

(a) corrosion of various forms has been a nagging problem as efforts have been made to use MS and aluminum with raw water. Use of galvanizing has been resorted to in case of steel absorbers and performance has been reasonably satisfactory, problems in certain localized areas still persist. Use of copper overcomes this problem but shoots up the cost.

(b) Formation of scales in absorbers due to direct use of raw water inhibits flow and increases resistance to heat transfer. The problems is more severe where thin and narrow passages are employed. A scale thickness of 1.22 mm in a 15 mm G.I.Pipe would decrease the collector efficiency by about 1 to 2%, (c) Failure and very poor reliability of the control hardware in the case of forced flow system like (i) A simple thermostat changes calibration over time. Capillary thermostat would provide better performance and reliable operation but are quite expensive (ii) problem with solenoid valve and at times level controllers.

Inadequate attention to controls and their maintenance, compromise made with selection of materials and processing of materials (to bring down initial costs) would severely hamper the commercialisation of solar water heaters.

to previous section to next section

[Ukrainian]  [English]  [Russian]