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close this bookLesson Plans for Beekeeping in the Philippines (Peace Corps; 1978; 62 pages)
View the documentLesson plan # 1 - Construction of equipment necessary for beekeeping
View the documentLesson plan #2 - Requirements: for and obtaining bees
View the documentLesson plan #3 - Handling bees
View the documentLesson plan #4 - Colony management/seasonal manipulations
View the documentLesson plan #5 - The bee colony and races of bees
View the documentLesson plan #6 - Problems in Philippine beekeeping
View the documentLesson plan #7 - Selection and rearing of queens for stock improvement
View the documentLesson plan #8 - Marketing hive products
View the documentReferences used

Lesson plan #8 - Marketing hive products

Time 1½ hours

Materials. Demonstration, Display

Objectives: Help beekeepers to sell bee products, and form cooperatives.

I. Honey

1. Harvesting

- honey is generally taken off when over ¾-ths of the comb is capped; uncapped honey tends to ferment since it is 'unripened' (i.e. not enough water has been evaporated off).

- combs can be cut out and pressed to extract honey and put into a screen or cloth bag, or scraped off to the midrib, leaving a foundation in the frame for the bees to start building again, or the wax tops can be cut off with a hot knife and the frame put into an extractor which will spin the honey off, leaving the comb intact. If cutting out comb, leave a 1 inch strip for bees to start on.

- once honey has been removed, strain the honey again through a finer cloth, to removed any particles, bees, debris, and dirt. Combs with brood should not be harvested.

- store honey in a shady but dry place, free from ants and other predators. Do not spray honey with insecticides. Bottle honey in any clear glass container, and label each bottle with quantity, usually by weight, and name of your yard. Honey is usually graded by color, the lighter the color the higher the grade. Some countries prefer darker honey and may be willing to pay more for it. Honey stored in the sun or in humid places will be ruined.

- honey in the wax comb can also be sold, either wrapped in plastic clear wrap, or bottled with honey.

- if honey is too liquid, it will foam and ferment on the top. Such honey bill spoil. Thick, clean honey, properly cured and stored (not in a damp place) will last many years. In time all honey will 'set up' or crystallize. This is not the same as spoiling and in fact many countries prefer this crystallized form.

2. Marketing

- all honey should be care fully labeled. Here is an example of a honey lable.


net: 450 Grams

Palapala, Dasmariñas, Cavite
March, 1978

- stores, stands, individuals, commercial centers, baking industries, health foods stores, etc. are interested in selling honey. Individual contacts can be made or through a buyer, especially in the larger towns and cities.

II. Wax

1. How to process and harvest

- all beeswax should be kept, scrapings from the hive, left over from wax moth infestation, and what is harvested with the honey. Wax in many countries is more valuable than honey. Here's how to harvest beeswax:

= Place wax in tub or pot and cover with water. The pot should be sturdy and not likely to break when put over the fire. Water should not boil over, as wax is very flammable and could bum easily. The wax will rise to the top and. once melted, strain it through a wire screen or jute sack cloth. The pail the wax is cooled in should have a larger top than bottom for easy removal of wax cake. Scrape away debris on bottom once cake is hard.

= A solar wax melter can be constructed using a heavy wooden box with a heavy glass top. Place in the sun, the wax inside will molt quickly. If a tin tray is made with a collecting spout, and a can placed under the spout, the melted wax will melt and be in a convenient cake in one step.

2. Marketing wax

- Wax can be used in the following ways:
= cosmetics
= machine tooling
= sailing outfits
= leather processing
= wood polish
= candles

- attached are copies of waterproofing, leather preparation on and wax polish you can make and sell, as wolf as how to make wax candles.

III. Pollination/selling bees

1. Leasing hives

- soon, growers in this country will see the value of having bees pollinate their fruits and vegetables. While experimental still in this country, growers will be willing to rent hives for beekeepers to move in while the crop is blooming and remove after flowering is done, or the grower has to spray insecticides.

2. Selling bees and equipment

The following things can be sold to beginners and advanced beekeepers alike:
= wooden parts (frames, boxes, tops, bottom, etc.)
= swarms
= improved queens
= wax comb or foundation
= smokers, veils, hive tool
= wax melters
= beeswax candle kits

IV. Beekeeping Cooperatives

1. Beekeeping cooperatives could be helpful for small time beekeepers in the following ways:

- able to sell more honey, combining resources to make labels, bottle honey, etc.
- organize leasing of hives through growers known in the area
- making equipment and selling it cooperatively
- exchanging information and sending representatives to periodic workshops, seminars, or courses
- able to combine resources to buy and share books periodicals or other literature

2. Ways that cooperatives can raise money are

- membership dues
- service charge for any seminars held by coop
- selling equipment, honey, wax etc.
- renting fees for pollination services
- commercial apiaries or university (or other private) contributions
- sale of goods made with honey etc. (baked goods, honey wine candles).

3. Eventually, some goals that can be realized by cooperative are:

- improving strains of bees (native)
- standardizes equipment built and used (sold)
- develop individual technology and style for locality
- keep records of honey/pollen plants in area, for honey flow data
- become a service center for beekeepers in large area, providing equipment, foundation mills extracting equipment, bottles and labeling heeds.

Beeswax Recipes


1 part tallow
1 part neatsfoot oil (or other oil)
1 part beeswax

Melt oil over hot water, add clarified melted tallow and clarified wax cake: mix and cool. Cover tightly.


Melt 1 pound (½ kg.) of beeswax and stir in 2½ of turpentine (mineral oil can also be added) until wax cools. Use as wood polish.


4 oz. wax
4 oz. resin
1 pint linseed oil
¼ pint turpentine

Melt wax and resin, stir in oil and cool while adding turpentine. Rub into leather.

Honey extractor

Squeezing out honey

Newton beehive

Overhead View

Completed beehive

Overhead View

A - Deep brood super

B - Deep brood super

C - Deep brood super

Shallow super

Alternate joints

Alternate joints

Alternate joints

Glue & nail

Bottom board - half size section showing clearance needed


Follower or division board


Upper joint

Lower joint

Made with power saws

Frame - top & bottom

Frame bottom

Optional frame spacer (bee space)

Bee frame

6 cells per linear inch

Queen cells

Drone cell

Worker cells

Tying old comb to a frame

Sheet of foundation wax

Spur wire - embedder

Outer cover

Inner cover - not always needed; wood strips, fiber mat or jute sack clark

Bottom board

Entrance reducer - A indica should have smaller entrance hole.






The center section is made of plastic window screen and the top and bottom sections of mosquito netting cut to the pattern shown. (Few case, draw full-size pattern.) Sew together in back. Stitch the hat band section around a rubber band or a coil of several stands of elastic cord so that the top section fits tightly around a straw hat. The lower seam should be made wide enough to take a 1/8" diameter cord about 8' long. Cord should be crossed across your chest, the ends brought around your back and tied in front. Make sure there are no spaces large enough for bees to get inside!


Solar beeswax extractor

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