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close this bookClimate Responsive Building - Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions (SKAT; 1993; 324 pages)
View the document1. Foreword
Open this folder and view contents2. Fundamentals
Open this folder and view contents3. Design rules
Open this folder and view contents4. Case studies
close this folder5. Appendices
View the document5.1 Physical data
View the document5.2 Literature
View the document5.3 Solar ecliptic charts
View the document5.4 Conversion factors to SI units
View the document5.5 List of possible plant species
 

5.1 Physical data

The data provided in the following tables are approximate only and serve as a basis for comparing different materials. For exact calculations the properties of the specific material must be considered, which may differ from the data provided here. The data are compiled from various sources.

5.1.1 Density, thermal conductivity, specific heat

PLEASE WIDEN YOUR TEXT SCREEN FOR OPTIMAL VIEW

 

Density

Thermal conductivity (k)

Specific heat ( Q )

 

kg/m³

W/mK

Wh/kgK

a) Natural stone and earth (moist)

     

Granite, marble

2800

3.5

0.26

Sandstone, limestone

2600

2.3

0.22

Sand

1700-2000

1.4

 

Earth

1800

2.1

 

b) Sand and earth (dry)

     

Sand, gravel (loose filling)

1800-2000

0.7

0.22

Clay massive (adobe)

1000-2000

0.2-1.0

0.23

c) Concrete

     

Solid concrete (RCC)

2400

1.8

0.33

Gas concrete

1000-1700

0.3-1.0

 

d) Plaster

     

Cement plaster

2200

1.4

0.3

Lime-cement plaster

1800

1.0

 

Gypsum plaster

1200

0.6

0.26

e) Timber

     

Softwood

450-500

0.15

0.55-0.66

Hardwood

600-800

0.18-0.22

0.55-0.66

f) Boards

     

Gypsum

1000

0.40

0.22

Asbestos cement

1700-2000

0.48

0.24

Woodwool, cement bound

700

0.12

0.42

Wood fibre, hard

800

0.17

0.7

Wood fibre, porous

200-400

0.06

0.7

Wood chips

650

0.11

0.75

Plywood

600

0.44

0.75

g) Masonry

     

Hollow brick

1200

0.47

0.26

Solid brick

1800

0.8

0.26

Cement stone

2000

1.1

0.3

Gas concrete

500-700

0.16-0.21

0.3

h) Insulation materials

     

Mineral wool, glass wool

20-120

0.04

0.17

Slag wool

30-70

0.06

0.17

Grass board

200-300

0.06

0.17

Coconut matting

50-200

0.05

0.17

Hemp mat

50-200

0.05

0.17

Cork board extruded

110-140

0.04

0.42

Cork coarse

80-160

0.06

0.42

Foamglass

125

0.045

0.22

Perlite with pressed fibre

170-200

0.06

0.17

Polystyrene extruded

20-40

0.04

0.39

i) Various materials

     

Steel

7850

60

0.13

Copper

9000

348

0.1

Aluminium

2700

200

0.26

Glass

2500

0.81

0.22

Water 10°C

1000

0.58

1.16

Ice

820-920

2.23

 

Snow 0°C

100

0.05

 

Air (theoretical case of still air)

1.2

0.02

0.28

5.1.2 Thermal transmittance (U-value), time lag values, solar heat gain factor

a) Homogeneous materials

 

Thickness in cm

Time lag
(O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Stone

20

5.5

 
 

30

8

 
 

40

10.5

 
 

60

15.5

 

Sand

30

13.4

 

Solid concrete

5

1.1

 
 

10

2.5

 
 

15

3.8

9

 

20

5.1

 
 

30

7.8

7

   

40

10.2

Solid brick

10

2.3

 
 

20

5.5

10

 

30

8.5

 
 

40

12

 

Stabilized soil, mud

10

2.4

 
 

15

4.0

 
 

20

5.2

 
 

30

8.1

 

Wood

1.5

0.2

 
 

2.5

0.45

 
 

5

1.3

 
 

10

3.0

 
 

30

17.4

 

Aluminium sheet (new)

 

0.5

10

Corrugated galvanized iron sheet (new)

 

0.5

20

Corrugated galvanized iron sheet (rusty)

 

0.5

34

Corrugated asbestos cement sheet (ACC)

 

0.5

16

Insulating board

1.5

0.1

 
 

2.5

0.23

 
 

5

0.77

 
 

10

2.7

 
 

15

5

 

b) Roof constructions

 

Thickness in cm
(U) W/m²K

Time lag (O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Thin sheets without ceiling (Alu, CGI, ACC)

8 - 9

0.5

see above

Alu sheet + cavity+ asbestos sheet

1.9

1

4.5

ceiling ditto + 50 mm fibre glass in cavity

1.3

1

3

Rusty CGI sheet + cavity + thin sheet

1.9

1

8

ceiling ditto + 50 mm fibre glass in cavity

1.3

1

5

Concrete slab, 300 mm

2.5

9.2

7

Concrete slab, 150 mm

3.3

4

9

ditto + 50 mm woodwool slab internally

1.13

4.5

3

ditto + external and internal insulation

0.75

13.5

2

ditto + whitewashed externally

3.3

4

4

ditto + 50 mm woodwool + whitewashed ext.

1.13

4.5

1.5

ditto + ext. and int. insul. + whitewashed ext.

0.75

13.5

1

c) Wall constructions

 

Thickness in cm
(U) W/m²K

Time lag (O) hours

Solar heat gain
factor (SHF) %

Hollow concrete block, 250 mm, rendered on both sides

1.7

11

5

ditto + whitewashed externally

1.7

11

2

Window with single glazing

4

0

85

Open window

-

0

100

Solid brick wall, 230 mm

2.7

8

10

ditto + whitewashed externally

2.7

8

3.5

Brick wall 280 mm incl. 50 mm cavity

1.7

10.5

6

ditto + whitewashed externally

1.7

10.5

2

Corrugated asbestos cement sheet

8

0.5

16

ditto + 50 mm woodwool slab + cavity

1.2

0.5

2.5

5.1.3 Reflectivity and emissivity of main materials

Surface

% Reflectivity of solar radiation (6’000°C)

% Emissivity of thermal radiation (10 to 40°C)

a) Natural materials

Sand, white

59

 

White marble

54

95

Limestone

43

95

Wood, pine

40

95

Grass

20

 

Sand, grey

18

 

b) Concrete and masonry walling

Cream brick

50 - 70

40 - 60

Yellow and buff brick, stone

30 - 50

85 - 95

Concrete

35 - 45

 

Red brick, stone

25 - 45

85 - 95

Asbestos cement, aged 1 year

29

95

c) Paints

Whitewash

80

 

White lead paint, light grey

71

89

Light green paint

50

92

Medium grey, yellow

45

92

Aluminium paint

45

55

Dark color ( brown, grey, red)

35

92

Deep dark brown, dark red, dark green

10

92

Black, non-metallic

2 - 15

90 - 98

Black, matt

3

95

d) Metal

Silver polished

93

2

Polished aluminium, chromium

60 - 90

2 - 8

Bright aluminium, gilt, bronze

50 - 70

40 - 60

Polished brass, copper

50 - 70

2 - 5

Dull brass, aluminium

35 - 60

20 - 30

Aluminium anodized

33

92

Galvanized iron, aged (oxidized)

10

28

e) Plaster

White

80

97

Orange

45

97

Light green

40

97

Light brown

35

97

Brown

32

97

Dark brown

17

97

f) Glass

Reflecting glass

50

 

Clear glass

10

90 - 95

Note:

- The higher the reflectivity of the surface of a material, the less is the heat load received by radiation and, after the heat has been transmitted through the material, the heat load in the interior.

- The higher the emissivity of a surface, the more a building cools down at night.

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