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close this bookClimate Responsive Building - Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions (SKAT; 1993; 324 pages)
View the document1. Foreword
Open this folder and view contents2. Fundamentals
Open this folder and view contents3. Design rules
Open this folder and view contents4. Case studies
close this folder5. Appendices
View the document5.1 Physical data
View the document5.2 Literature
View the document5.3 Solar ecliptic charts
View the document5.4 Conversion factors to SI units
View the document5.5 List of possible plant species
 

5.4 Conversion factors to SI units

Various units Imperial units Obsolescent units etc.

Conversion factors

Metric/Siunits

a) Length

   

Units: inch(in)

1 in = 25.4 mm

Units: millimetre(mm)

foot(ft)

1 ft = 30.48 cm

centimetre(cm)

yard (yd)

1 yd = 91.44 cm

metre (m)

mile(mile)

1 mile = 1.6093 km

kilometre(km)

12 in = 1 ft

 

10 mm = 1 cm

3 ft = 1 yd

 

100 cm = 1 m

1760yd = 1 mile

 

1000 m = 1 km

b) Area

Units: square in (sq in;in²)

1 in² = 6.4516 cm2

Units: square mm (mm²)

square ft (sq ft; ft²)

1 ft² = 0.0929 m²

square cm (cm²)

square yd (sq yd; yd2)

1 yd² = 0.8361 m²

square m (m²)

acre

1 acre = 4046.86 m²

hectare (ha)

square mile (sq mire)

1 mile² = 2.59 km²

square km (km²)

144 in² = 1 ft²

 

100 mm² = 1 cm²

9 ft² = 1 yd2

 

10000 cm² = 1 m²

4840 yd2 = 1 acre

 

10000 m² = 1 ha

640 acre = 1 sq mile

 

100 ha = 1 km²

c) Volume

Units: cubic in(cu in; in³)

1 in³ = 16.3871 cm³

Units: cubic cm(cm³)

cubic ft (cu ft; ft³)

1 ft³ = 28.32 dm³

cubic decimetre (dm³)

cubic yd (cu yd; yd³)

1 yd³ = 0.7646 m³

cubic m (m³)

1728 in³ = 1 ft³

 

1000 cm³ = 1 dm³

27 ft³ = 1 yd³

 

1000 dm³ = 1 m³

100 ft³ = 1 register ton

   

d) Capacity / volume of liquids and gases

Units: fluid ounce(floz)

1 floz (UK) = 28.4 ml

Units: millilitre (ml)

gill (UKgill)

1 gill (UK) = 142 ml

cubic cm (cm³, ccm, cc)

gill (USgill)

1 gill (US) = 118.3 ml

cubic dm (dm³)

pint (UK pt)

1 pint (UK) = 568 ml

litre (l)

pint(USpt)

1 pint(US) = 454 ml

kilo litre (kl)

quart (UK qt)

1 qt (UK) = 1136 ml

cubic m (m³)

quart (US qt)

1 qt (US) = 909

ml

gallon(UK gel)

1 gal (UK) = 4.546 l

 

gallon (US gal)

1 gal (US) = 3.785 l

 

barrel

1 barrel = 158.9 l

 

5 floz = 1 UK gill

 

1 ml = 1 cm³

4 floz = 1 US gill

 

1000 nil = 1 l

4gill = 1 pt (UK, US)

 

1 l = 1 dm³

2pt = 1 qt (UK, US)

 

1000 l = 1 kl = 1 m³

4 qt = 1 gal (UK, US)

   

1 UK gal= 1.2 US gal

   

e) Weight

Units: ounce(oz)

1 oz = 28.35 g

Units: milligram(mg)

pound(lb)

1 lb = 0.454kg

gram (g)

stone (stone)

1 stone = 6.35 kg

kilogram(kg)

hundred weight (cwt)

1 cwt = 50.8 kg

ton(t)

long ton (UK ton)

1 Ukton = 1.016 t

 

short ton (US ton)

1 Uston = 0.907 t

 

16 oz = 1 lb

1000 ml = 1 g

 

14 lb = 1 stone

1000 g = 1 kg

 

8 stone = 1 cwt

1000 kg = 1 t

 

112 lb = 14 stone = 1 UK ton

   

100 lb = 1 US ton

   

f) Density

Units: lb/cu ft (lb/ft3)

1 lb/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m³

Unit: kg/m³

lb/UK gal

1 lb/UK gal= 100 kg/m³

 

lb/US gal

1 lb/US gal= 120 kg/m³

 

g) Force

Units: lbf

1 lbf = 4.448 N

Units: newton (N) [kgm/s²]

tonf

1 tonf = 9.964 kN

kilonewton (kN)

h) Pressure

Units: lbf/in² (psi)

1 psi = 6895 Pa

Units: pascal (Pa)

tonf/ft² (UK)

1 tonf/ft2 = 107 kPa

kilopascal (kPa)

 

1 tonf/ft² = 0.107 Mpa

megapascal (MPa)

   

newton/mm² (N/mm²)

   

bar (bar)

   

1 Pa= 1 N/m²

   

1 kPa= 1000 N/m²

   

1 bar= 0.1 N/mm²

i) Energy, work, heat

Units: British thermal unit (Btu)

1 Btu = 1055 J

Units: joule (J) [kgm²/s²]

calorie (cal)

1 cal = 4.186 J

kilojoule (kJ)

 

1 cal = 0.000293 kWh

kilowatt hour (kWh)

barrel (crude oil)

1 barrel = 1700 kWh

watt second (Ws)

   

newton metre (Nm)

   

pascal cubicmetre (Pam³)

   

1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws = 1 Pam³

   

1 kWh = 3600 kJ

k) Power, energy flow rate

Units: Btu/h

1 Btu/h = 0.293 W

Units: watt (W) [kgm²/s³]

ftlbf/s

1 ftlb/s = 1.356 W

joules/second (J/s)

horsepower (hp)

1 hp = 736 W

hp metric

550 ftlbf/s = 1 hp

 

1 W = 1 J/s

2545 Btu/h = 1 hp

 

735.5 W = 1 hp metric

l) Thermal conductivity (k)

Units: Btu/ft2h°F

1 Btu/ft2h°F = 0.144 WmK

Unit: W/mK

kcal/mh°C1

kcal/mh°C = 1.163 W/mK

 

0.124 kcal/mh°C = 1 Btu/ft2h°F

   

m) Thermal transmittance (U)

Units: Btu/ft2h°F

1 Btu/ft2h°F = 5.678 W/m²K

Unit: W/m²K

kcal/m²h°C

1 kcal/m²h°C = 1.163 W/m²K

 

n) Density of energy flow rate, intensity

Units: Btu/ft2h

1 Btu/ft2h = 3.155 W/m²

Unit: W/m²

kcal/m²h

1 kcal/m²h = 1.163 W/m²

langley/h

langley/h

1 langley/h = 11.63 W/m²

 

o) Thermal capacity

Units: Btu/°F

1 Btu/°F = 1899 J/K

Unit: J/K

kcal/°C

1 kcal/°C= 4187 J/K

 

p) Specific heat

Units: Btu/lb °F

1 Btu/lb °F = 4.187 J/kgK

Units: J/kgK

Btu/ft³ °F

1 Btu/ft3 °F = 67 kJ/m³

KJ/m³K

kcal/kg °C

1 kcal/kg °C = 4.187 kJ/kgK

 

kcal/m³ °C

1 kcal/m³ °C= 4.187 kJ/m³ K

 

kcal/l °C

1 kcal/l °C= 4.187 MJ/m³ K

 
 

Density x specific heat (J/kgK) = specific heat (J/m³ K)

 

q) Velocity

Units: ft/s

1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s

Units: m/s

miles/h (mph)

1 mph =1.609 km/h

km/h

knot (kn)

1 kn = 1.85 km/h

 
 

= 0.51 m/s

 
   

1 m/s= 3.6 km/h

r) Temperature

Unit: degree Fahrenheit (°F)

1 °F = 0.5556°C

Units: degree Celsius or Centigrade (°C)

 

1 °F = 0.5556 K

Kelvin (K)

   

1 K = 1°C

   

K = °C + 273

   

0°C = water freezing point *

   

100°C = water boiling point *

   

(* at air pressure of 101 kPa)

Conversion of temperature level °F - °C:

°F = 9/5 x °C + 32
°C = 5/9 ( °F - 32 )

Fahrenheit

Celsius

212 °F =

100 °C

194 °F =

90 °C

176 °F =

80 °C

158 °F =

70 °C

140 °F =

60 °C

122 °F =

50 °C

104 °F =

40 °C

80 °F =

30 °C

68 °F =

20 °C

50 °F =

10 °C

32 °F =

0 °C

14 °F =

- 10 °C

- 4 °F =

- 20 °C

- 22 °F =

- 30 °C

- 40 °F =

- 40 °C

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