Climate Responsive Building - Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions (SKAT; 1993; 324 pages) 1. Foreword 2. Fundamentals 3. Design rules 4. Case studies 5. Appendices 5.1 Physical data 5.2 Literature 5.3 Solar ecliptic charts 5.4 Conversion factors to SI units 5.5 List of possible plant species

### 5.4 Conversion factors to SI units

 Various units Imperial units Obsolescent units etc. Conversion factors Metric/Siunits a) Length Units: inch(in) 1 in = 25.4 mm Units: millimetre(mm) foot(ft) 1 ft = 30.48 cm centimetre(cm) yard (yd) 1 yd = 91.44 cm metre (m) mile(mile) 1 mile = 1.6093 km kilometre(km) 12 in = 1 ft 10 mm = 1 cm 3 ft = 1 yd 100 cm = 1 m 1760yd = 1 mile 1000 m = 1 km b) Area Units: square in (sq in;in²) 1 in² = 6.4516 cm2 Units: square mm (mm²) square ft (sq ft; ft²) 1 ft² = 0.0929 m² square cm (cm²) square yd (sq yd; yd2) 1 yd² = 0.8361 m² square m (m²) acre 1 acre = 4046.86 m² hectare (ha) square mile (sq mire) 1 mile² = 2.59 km² square km (km²) 144 in² = 1 ft² 100 mm² = 1 cm² 9 ft² = 1 yd2 10000 cm² = 1 m² 4840 yd2 = 1 acre 10000 m² = 1 ha 640 acre = 1 sq mile 100 ha = 1 km² c) Volume Units: cubic in(cu in; in³) 1 in³ = 16.3871 cm³ Units: cubic cm(cm³) cubic ft (cu ft; ft³) 1 ft³ = 28.32 dm³ cubic decimetre (dm³) cubic yd (cu yd; yd³) 1 yd³ = 0.7646 m³ cubic m (m³) 1728 in³ = 1 ft³ 1000 cm³ = 1 dm³ 27 ft³ = 1 yd³ 1000 dm³ = 1 m³ 100 ft³ = 1 register ton d) Capacity / volume of liquids and gases Units: fluid ounce(floz) 1 floz (UK) = 28.4 ml Units: millilitre (ml) gill (UKgill) 1 gill (UK) = 142 ml cubic cm (cm³, ccm, cc) gill (USgill) 1 gill (US) = 118.3 ml cubic dm (dm³) pint (UK pt) 1 pint (UK) = 568 ml litre (l) pint(USpt) 1 pint(US) = 454 ml kilo litre (kl) quart (UK qt) 1 qt (UK) = 1136 ml cubic m (m³) quart (US qt) 1 qt (US) = 909 ml gallon(UK gel) 1 gal (UK) = 4.546 l gallon (US gal) 1 gal (US) = 3.785 l barrel 1 barrel = 158.9 l 5 floz = 1 UK gill 1 ml = 1 cm³ 4 floz = 1 US gill 1000 nil = 1 l 4gill = 1 pt (UK, US) 1 l = 1 dm³ 2pt = 1 qt (UK, US) 1000 l = 1 kl = 1 m³ 4 qt = 1 gal (UK, US) 1 UK gal= 1.2 US gal e) Weight Units: ounce(oz) 1 oz = 28.35 g Units: milligram(mg) pound(lb) 1 lb = 0.454kg gram (g) stone (stone) 1 stone = 6.35 kg kilogram(kg) hundred weight (cwt) 1 cwt = 50.8 kg ton(t) long ton (UK ton) 1 Ukton = 1.016 t short ton (US ton) 1 Uston = 0.907 t 16 oz = 1 lb 1000 ml = 1 g 14 lb = 1 stone 1000 g = 1 kg 8 stone = 1 cwt 1000 kg = 1 t 112 lb = 14 stone = 1 UK ton 100 lb = 1 US ton f) Density Units: lb/cu ft (lb/ft3) 1 lb/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m³ Unit: kg/m³ lb/UK gal 1 lb/UK gal= 100 kg/m³ lb/US gal 1 lb/US gal= 120 kg/m³ g) Force Units: lbf 1 lbf = 4.448 N Units: newton (N) [kgm/s²] tonf 1 tonf = 9.964 kN kilonewton (kN) h) Pressure Units: lbf/in² (psi) 1 psi = 6895 Pa Units: pascal (Pa) tonf/ft² (UK) 1 tonf/ft2 = 107 kPa kilopascal (kPa) 1 tonf/ft² = 0.107 Mpa megapascal (MPa) newton/mm² (N/mm²) bar (bar) 1 Pa= 1 N/m² 1 kPa= 1000 N/m² 1 bar= 0.1 N/mm² i) Energy, work, heat Units: British thermal unit (Btu) 1 Btu = 1055 J Units: joule (J) [kgm²/s²] calorie (cal) 1 cal = 4.186 J kilojoule (kJ) 1 cal = 0.000293 kWh kilowatt hour (kWh) barrel (crude oil) 1 barrel = 1700 kWh watt second (Ws) newton metre (Nm) pascal cubicmetre (Pam³) 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws = 1 Pam³ 1 kWh = 3600 kJ k) Power, energy flow rate Units: Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.293 W Units: watt (W) [kgm²/s³] ftlbf/s 1 ftlb/s = 1.356 W joules/second (J/s) horsepower (hp) 1 hp = 736 W hp metric 550 ftlbf/s = 1 hp 1 W = 1 J/s 2545 Btu/h = 1 hp 735.5 W = 1 hp metric l) Thermal conductivity (k) Units: Btu/ft2h°F 1 Btu/ft2h°F = 0.144 WmK Unit: W/mK kcal/mh°C1 kcal/mh°C = 1.163 W/mK 0.124 kcal/mh°C = 1 Btu/ft2h°F m) Thermal transmittance (U) Units: Btu/ft2h°F 1 Btu/ft2h°F = 5.678 W/m²K Unit: W/m²K kcal/m²h°C 1 kcal/m²h°C = 1.163 W/m²K n) Density of energy flow rate, intensity Units: Btu/ft2h 1 Btu/ft2h = 3.155 W/m² Unit: W/m² kcal/m²h 1 kcal/m²h = 1.163 W/m² langley/h langley/h 1 langley/h = 11.63 W/m² o) Thermal capacity Units: Btu/°F 1 Btu/°F = 1899 J/K Unit: J/K kcal/°C 1 kcal/°C= 4187 J/K p) Specific heat Units: Btu/lb °F 1 Btu/lb °F = 4.187 J/kgK Units: J/kgK Btu/ft³ °F 1 Btu/ft3 °F = 67 kJ/m³ KJ/m³K kcal/kg °C 1 kcal/kg °C = 4.187 kJ/kgK kcal/m³ °C 1 kcal/m³ °C= 4.187 kJ/m³ K kcal/l °C 1 kcal/l °C= 4.187 MJ/m³ K Density x specific heat (J/kgK) = specific heat (J/m³ K) q) Velocity Units: ft/s 1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s Units: m/s miles/h (mph) 1 mph =1.609 km/h km/h knot (kn) 1 kn = 1.85 km/h = 0.51 m/s 1 m/s= 3.6 km/h r) Temperature Unit: degree Fahrenheit (°F) 1 °F = 0.5556°C Units: degree Celsius or Centigrade (°C) 1 °F = 0.5556 K Kelvin (K) 1 K = 1°C K = °C + 273 0°C = water freezing point * 100°C = water boiling point * (* at air pressure of 101 kPa)

Conversion of temperature level °F - °C:

°F = 9/5 x °C + 32
°C = 5/9 ( °F - 32 )

 Fahrenheit Celsius 212 °F = 100 °C 194 °F = 90 °C 176 °F = 80 °C 158 °F = 70 °C 140 °F = 60 °C 122 °F = 50 °C 104 °F = 40 °C 80 °F = 30 °C 68 °F = 20 °C 50 °F = 10 °C 32 °F = 0 °C 14 °F = - 10 °C - 4 °F = - 20 °C - 22 °F = - 30 °C - 40 °F = - 40 °C