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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT; 1994; 298 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentA few words on this English edition:
View the documentImpressum
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction to the Guidelines
View the documentCommon Difficulties
Open this folder and view contentsQuestions List
Open this folder and view contentsTheory Chapters
 

Common Difficulties

A. Sphere of Influence

When considering difficulties it is worthwhile finding out whether, in the first place, any influence can be exerted on the circumstances in question. The following illustration may help to provide an overview.

B. Our offer: Problem-solving assistance from a distance

Here we outline

- some common difficulties in extension
- possible reasons for each difficulty
- pointers towhere the Gudelines can help you

C. Procedure

1. Name your difficulty !

2. In which sphere does it lie:

- with the government / with the Ministry of Agriculture
- with the extension service and its staff
- among the target population
- with you personally

3. Turn a few more pages and decide:

- which of the difficulties mentioned most closely resembles your own;
- which of the possible reasons mentioned is the most likely.

4. Look at the references given to particular sections of the Guidelines. They will lead you to passages that will help you along


FIGURE

Extension doesn't work

The reason is thought to lie with the government / with the Ministry of Agriculture

Difficulty

Possible Reason

Pointers to

   

· Question lists

   

· Theory chapters

Government regulations hinder extension work

- The real needs of the population are not perceived or not respected.

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

6.1 Agricultural Policy

   

A Definition of Extension

   

D Functions of Extension

   

I Developing Extension Topics

 

- The regulations burden the extension service with administrative work.

1.1 The Role of Workers

   

D Functions of Extension

 

- The farmers do not understand the regulations or the regulations conflict with the farmers' interests.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

I Developing Extension Topics

   

K Farming Systems Research

 

- The extension service is swamped with formal regulations (demand for reports).

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

2.7 Tools for Planning

   

2.8 Evaluation

   

N Writing of Reports

The government fails to keep agreements.

- Money is lacking

2.4 Operation Planning

   

2.5 Organization

 

- The premises, implications and consequences were wrongly or incompletely anticipated.

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

2.4 Operation Planning

   

C Value Concepts

   

H Problem Solving Assistance

The research institutes fail to provide usable results.

- Communication channels between the extension service and the research institutes are blocked.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

6.5 Research

   

G Transmission of Information

   

K Farming Systems Research

   

6.1 Agricultural Policy

 

- Basic research has higher priority than applied research.

6.5 Research

   

K Farming Systems Research

     

The advisors from the Forestery and Veterinary Services tell the farmers the exact opposite of what the agricultural extensionists are saying.

-Co-ordination between the various extension services is lacking.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

 

3 Extension Subject Matter

 
   

6.6 Other Extension Services

   

D Functions of Extension

 

- The extension workers are too narrowly specialized and neglect the linkages that are important for the farmers.

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

   

1.2 Training

   

3 Extension Subject Matter

   

6.6 Other Extension Services

   

6.7 Agricultural Training

   

K Farming Systems Research

Influential people hinder the ex tension activity.

- The extension service reduces the privileges of and conflicts with the interests of influential people.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

The reason is thought to lie with the extension service and its staff

Difficulty

Possible Reason

Pointers to

   

· Question lists

   

· Theory chapters

The extension workers are not motivated (no initiative, no professional pride, no sense of their own responsibility).

- The staff has not been included in planning the activities.

2.1 The Planning Team

 

- The staff is insufficiently / irregularly paid.

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

6.1 Agricultural Policy

 

- The staff is given too little recognition.

2.6 Staff Management

   

2.8 Evaluation

 

- The staff has other (career) aims and/or other (family and social)

1.3 Motivation

   

6.4 Supply and Marketing Services

   

6.5 Research

   

6.6 Other Extension Services

   

C Value Concepts

Hierarchic thinking hinders the commitment of the extension workers.

- Junior-level staff do not voice their opinions (from fear or from feelings of inferiority).

1.3 Motivation

   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

   

E Animation

 

- Intrigues hinder co-operation among the extension workers .

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

   

E Animation

The extension workers do not have the confidence population.

- Staff performance does not come up to the population's expectations.

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

 

- The staff members belong to another ethnic/social group.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

C Value Concepts

 

- The extension workers feel superior to the target population

 
   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

The staffs not equal to its task

- Basic training was inadequate.

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

   

1.2 Training

   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

6.7 Agricultural Training

   

D Functions of Extension

 

- Recruitement procedures for the extension workers were in adequate.

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

 

- The staff members receive too little further training.

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

 

- The extension workers are afraid of the population.

1.2 Training

   

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

   

D Functions of Extension

Extension doesn't work

The reason is thought to lie with the target population

Difficulty

Possible Reason

Pointers to

   

· Question lists

   

Theory chapters

Only a few farmers are adopting the proposed innovations.

- The farmers were not involved in the development of the innovation.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

I Developing Extension Topics

   

K Farming Systems Research

 

- The innovation does not meet the needs of the farmers.

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

3 Extension Subject Matter

   

4.1 Individual

   

4.2 Counselling

   

I Developing Extension Topics

   

K Farming Systems Research

 

- The farmers have no access to credit, means of production or markets.

3.5 Finance/Credit

   

6.3 Agricultural Credit

   

6.4 Supply and Marketing Services

   

D Functions of Extension

 

- The farmers have not understood the innovation.

4 Extension Methods

   

5 Extension Accessories

   

B Communication

   

F Adult Education

   

G Transmission of Information

   

H Problem Solving Assistance

 

- The farmers expect gifts

1.1 The Role of

   

1.4 The Social Environment

   

A Definition of Extension

   

C Value Concepts

 

- The farmers see extension as a service to provide them with products and to solve their problems and not as an assistance to help them solve their problems.

6.3 Agricultural Credit

   

6.4 Supply and Marketing Services

   

A Definition of Extension

   

B Communication

   

D Functions of Extension

   

E Animation

   

H Problem Solving Assistance

 

- The innovation interferes with the rights of another ethnic or social group

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situtation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

C Value Concepts

   

H Problem Solving Assistance

Extension doesn't work

The reason is thought to lie with the extension worker himself/herself or in his/her personal environment

Difficulty

Possible Reason

Pointers to

   

· Question lists

   

· Theory chapters

I don't understand what's hap peeing.

- I do not understand the local language.

-

 

- I do not know the local customs for communicating.

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

 

- I am too impatient and expect too much.

C Value Concepts

 

- I do not understand the hidden meanings in my work with the farmers.

1.4 The Social Environment

   

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

6.6 Other Extension Services

   

B Communication

   

C Value Concepts

I have very little time and I feel under pressure to produce quick results.

- The demands on the programme are over-ambitious and unrealistic.

2.1 The Planning Team

   

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

2.4 Operation Planning

   

2.5 Organization

 

- I am taking on to much work.

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers

   

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

2.4 Operation Planning

 

- I can not judge my own work honestly.

1.2 Training

   

1.3 Motivation

   

2.8 Evaluation

 

- Quarrels within the extension team use up too much time and energy.

2.5 Organization

   

2.6 Staff Management

   

B Communication

   

M Dialogues in Extension

 

- Some of our work is inefficient, duplicating or overlapping with other efforts.

2.5 Organization

   

6.6 Other Extension Services

 

- There are inefficient or insufficient workers in the extension service.

1.2 Training

   

1.3 Motivation

   

2.5 Organization

   

6.7 Agricultural Training

l cannot identify with the exten sion programme (duties, content, methods).

- I cannot accept the aims of my development organization.

2.3 Identification of Objectives

   

A Definition of Extension

   

D Functions of Extension

   

J Extension Approaches

 

- My ideas are different from those of the local government.

1.4 The Social Environment

   

6.1 Agricultural Policy

   

A Definition of Extension

   

C Value Concepts

   

D Functions of Extension

   

I Developing Extension Topics

   

J Extension Approaches

I cannot identify with what the farmers want.

- The farmers do not think about the sustainability issue.

2.2 Situation Analysis

   

2.3 Identifcation of Objectives

   

3 Extension Subject Matter

   

C Value Concepts

   

H Problem Solving Assistance

 

- The population concerned expects the extension service to do everything for them (a bottle- feeding mentality), because

2.1 The Planning Team

 

• neighbouring projects encourage this way of thinking

4.2 Group Counselling

 

• the project itself used to promote this way of thinking

D Functions of Extension

   

K Farming Systems Research

For those who are interested we should like to mention how we arrived at this collection of difficulties. The "raw material" came from an enquiry that was addressed to former and to still active extension workers. We asked them to name the three most important difficulties they had found in extension work. To their replies we have added the difficulties we ourselves had experienced. Finally, we have compared the whole list with the difficulties found in concrete examples quoted in the relevant literature (reports, GTZ-Handbuch Landwirtschaftliche Beratung).

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