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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT; 1994; 298 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the documentA few words on this English edition:
View the documentImpressum
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction to the Guidelines
View the documentCommon Difficulties
close this folderQuestions List
View the document1 EXTENSION WORKER
View the document2 EXTENSION PLANNING
View the document3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER
View the document4 EXTENSION METHODS
View the document5 EXTENSION ACCESSORIES
View the document6 EXTENSION CONTEXT
Open this folder and view contentsTheory Chapters
 

3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER


In one culture, a problem has been solved in the same old way for years ...


...but it is doubtful whether it can be used in the same way in other cultures.


FIGURE

Means of Production

Definition Means of production = input obtainable by purchase or exchange i.e. seed, tools, fertilizer, chemicals.

(Land, labour and capital are production factors)

Principle The supply of means of production should not put farmers at risk by making them dependent on the external supply of the inputs.


FIGURE

Question List

- What means of production are in high demand from the target group?
- How does the extension service react to these demands?
- What criteria influence the decision of the extension service, about the inputs it supplies?
- What means of production can the farmers afford?
- What means of production are being used in the area?
- Which inputs are difficult to obtain when needed?
- Who has access to the means of production?
- Who sells the means of production?
- How promptly are the means of production supplied?
- What means of production can be obtained locally (seed, seedlings ...)?

- How much does the extension work depend on the supply of inputs?
- What organization could be responsible for selling and distributing the means of production?
- How can the availability of inputs be guaranteed beyond the duration of the project?
- What ecological side-effects are created by the use of certain means of production?
- How should the extension service respond if certain means of production are ecologically damaging?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.3 Agricultural Credit
6.4 Supply and Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

187 Provision of production means

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Production Techniques

Definition Production techniques = the ways in which an agricultural product is produced. Production techniques include the following notions:

· Crop cultivation
· Fodder cultivation

· Livestock breeding
· Livestock production


FIGURE

Question List

- Who has analyzed the situation and the production techniques being used?
- With what techniques are the target group familiar?
- What are the advantages of the existing production techniques?
- Who knows why this production technique was chosen or why it has remained unchanged?
- Who has an interest in introducing new techniques?
- What are the advantages of maintaining the traditional technique?
- What suggestions for improving the production technique have been tested already?
- Who developed the proposed solutions?
- What part did the target group play in helping to solve the problem?
- Who is likely to benefit from the technical solution suggested and who can use it?
- How can short-term increases in yield be achieved and maintained?
- What is being done to check whether the new technique fits into the existing farming system?
- How can the impacts of the new technique be assessed?
- What negative impacts are expected?
- How much will the social impacts be in the interest of the target group?
- How will old people, women and children be affected by the new technique?

Related Keywords

2.3 Identification of Objectives
4.4 Demonstrations
6.5 Research
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

15 A1: Production technology approach
139 C2: Traditional level of knowledge
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Rural Engineering / Farm Mechanization

Definition

· Rural engineering = soil-improvement measures (draining, irrigation, erosion prevention, reallocation and regrouping of land)

· Farm mechanization = the use of tools and machines

Principle Use only suitable technology which is adapted to the local environment, economy, social structures, production technique, maintenance, repair service and the skills of the target group.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the rural engineering/farm mechanization problems of the target group?

- Why were the rural engineering/farm mechanization policies inappropriate?

- What problems concern the target group?

- What differences are there between the population's view of the problem and that of the extensionist?

- What is the farmers' attitude towards the problem situation?

- What suggestions/requests/ideas are proposed by the target group?

- What have the farmers done already to help solve the problem?

- What has been their experience?

- What advantages are there in keeping the traditional technology?

- What innovations are being proposed by local organizations?

- Where have such innovations been tested, what results have been achieved, and what impact do they have on the target group?

- How do the suggested innovations fit into the existing farming system?

- Who can use the innovation?

- Who profits most from the innovation ?

- What benefits does the innovation offer (production increases, labour-saving, soil conservation, yield ensurance)?

- What organizational structure is necessary to introduce the innovation?

- How can both short-term interests and sustained results be achieved?

- How can the impacts of the new technology be assessed?

- What negative side-effects are expected?

- How much will the social impacts be in the interest of the target group?

- How will old people, women and children be affected by the new technology?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
4.4 Demonstrations
5.6 Demonstration Plots/Pilot Farms
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.5 Research
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Post-harvest Storage / Processing / Marketing

Observation

- The surplus yield of a good harvest is quickly lost
- if unsuitably stored
- if inappropriately marketed (seasonal collapse of prices).


FIGURE

Question List

- How is stock-management done?

- Who is responsible for it?

- What problems do the target group have in storing and marketing their products?

- What suggestions have the target group proposed?

- What storage techniques are known or were once common?

- What limitations do these storage methods have?

- Where has experience been made with new forms of storage?

- What does the target group think about these new methods?

- How is agricultural produce marketed?

- Who has an interest in maintaining the existing storage/marketing system?

- Who has an interest in changing it?

- What kind of relationship exists between farmers and merchants?

- What services could a marketing organization offer, and what services are beyond its capacity (loans, social connections, overnight accommodation in the market town, purchases from the city, special services)?

- How much shared responsibility is the target group prepared to assume?

- How much do prices change from month to month, from year to year?

- What special marketing channels exist for particular products?

- What marketing monopolies exist?

- What influence does the state or the export economy have on agricultural marketing?

Related Keywords

5.7 Transport
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.4 Supply and Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

190 Marketing

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Farm Management / Finance / Credit

Principles

· Credits only for productive activities

· Credits only on the basis of thorough economic analyses


FIGURE

Question List

- What terms do the farmers use when talking about farm management?

- What is the economic and socio-cultural significance of each type of farm production?

- What farm management data is available? How reliable is it?

- How self-sufficient are the farming families?

- What goods are sold or purchased at the market?

- What goods are exchanged? Which are sold or bought?

- In what form are savings kept?

- What is the preferred way of investing capital?

- What advantages do the target group see in the credit system?

- What role have credits played in the current farming system?

- What are the traditional credit forms (neighborhood help, local savings-funds, banks, money lenders)?

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of these forms of credit?

- Who is/was the lender? What additional services does s/he offer? What influence can she have on the borrowers?

- Who has access to credit? Who has not (because of age, gender, economic status)?

- What advantages and disadvantages would there be for the farmer if the existing credit system was stopped?

- What prevents farmers from pursuing financial independence?

- What guarantees are necessary for obtaining credit?

- Who can produce these guarantees?

- What risks does the farmer run when she takes credit?

- What back-up plans are made in case of crop failure?

- What institutions are best able to provide credit?

- How will the credit service be financed?

- What rate of interest is considered fair?

- How can farm management advisers and credit officials work together?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.3 Agricultural Credit
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
188 Credit

Volume 2:

85 B2: Extension and credit in farm systems (Kenya)
89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Organizational Development

Definition Organizational development aims to increase the capacity of a group of people to solve their own problems and to adapt their organizational structure to the tasks to be done.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the advantages of being in an organized group?

- What forms of cooperation exist within the traditional society?

- What traditional groups exist and how do they work?

- What "modern" forms of organization are there (e.g. interest groups, committees, associations, societies, cooperatives, trade unions, federations) and how do they work?

- Why have these organizations been set up? By whom?

- What legal rules apply to these organizations?

- What types of groups and organizations are the people familiar and comfortable with?

- What are the strengths and weaknesses of these types of organizations?

- What extension services could these organizations take over? What services could they not take over? Why not?

- Who can become a member of the organization (heads of families, women, young people, single people)?

- What women's organizations exist? What young people's organizations exist?

- What kind of experience has the target group already had with self-help organizations ?

- Why did previous organizational development efforts fail?

- What aspects of organizational development must be dealt with carefully to avoid failure?

- What benefits would a farming family get from taking part in the proposed self-help group?

- Whose interests are affected by setting up self-help groups?

- What other self-help organizations might compete with a new one?

- Where must care be taken in distributing responsibilities within a self-help organization?

- What tasks can the self-help organizations take over?

- What is the government's attitude towards the formation of farmers' organizations?

- What areas of organizational activity can be expected to receive government support?

- What training opportunities exist for self-help groups? What training needs do the groups have?

- What associations exist with which co-operation might be possible?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
6.6 Other Extension Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation / Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

208 Self-help organisations

Volume 2:

89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)
241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help,
"GRAAP"
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations
363 F8: Farming village committee

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